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AP Hug Culture

Practice for ap hug chapter 4 culture test

QuestionAnswer
Culture The traditions and beliefs among a group of people. This is learned behavior that is passed down from one generation to the next.
Cultural Traits Units of learned behavior such as the language spoken or the games played. Attitudes, techniques, etc.
Culture Complex A group of related cultural traits. Ex: A car in the us reflects daily life, social status, how the car is used in movies, transportation, etc.
Customs The shared, repeated characteristic acts, behavioral patterns, artistic traditions and conventions regulating social life of a group
Cultural Systems Culture system – a generalization which suggests shared identifying traits uniting more than one culture complex. What we eat, when we eat and how we eat is an example of cultural differences
Cultural Ecology Study of human-environment relationships -adaptations to social & physical environments
Environmental Determinism the theory that the physical environment causes social and cultural development
Cultural Integration All elements of a society are interwoven with the dominant culture. The process of combining cultures together into one.
Core-Domain Sphere Model Influence of a culture decreases the further one travels from the core.
Vernacular/Perceptual Region A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity. This comes from peoples informal sense of place such as mental maps. A region defined by peoples beliefs.
Cultural Realm A geographic assemblage of related culture regions (Ex: Latin America, Anglo America, Western Europe, sub-saharan Africa)
Cultural Transition Zones An area around the boundary between two culture regions that exhibits traits from both cultures Ex:Southwest US-Northern Mexico (that area exhibits traits from both the california and mexico region)
Habit a repetitive act by an individual
Custom when an entire group does it. a practice that a group of people routinely follows. Ex: Aboriginal women baptize infants with smoke.
Tradition the same as a custom-the term implies longevity.
Core The zone of greatest concentration or homogeneity (likeness) of the culture traits that characterize a region.
Sphere The zone of outer influence for a culture region.
Examples of Folk Culture Pueblo communities New Mexico- folk Cultural landscape. Amish Communities in Pennsylvania – Folk cultural landscape
Pop Culture Cultural Traits such as clothes,diet and music that identify and are part of todays changeable urban based media influenced societies. Found in large heterogenous societies that share certain habits DESPITE differences in other personal characteristics.
Folk/Local Culture A group of homogeneous people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or a community (usually small), who share experiences, customs, and traits, and who work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distin
Contagious Diffusion the rapid and widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population
Hierarchical Diffusion the spread of an idea from persons of power to other persons. FOR EX: The spread of laptop computers from the upper class to the middle class.
Stimulus Diffusion Innovative idea diffuses from its hearth outward, but the original idea is changed by the new adopters For EX: Diffusion of iced tea to the South and then modified by southerners to fit their sweet-toothed needs resulting in “sweet tea”
Material Culture The things a group of people construct, such as art, houses, clothing, sports, dance, and food
Nonmaterial Culture The beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people. Examples-religion, language, traditions & customs
Acculturation the process by which a less dominant culture adopts some of the traits of a more dominant culture
Assimilation the process by which a less dominant culture adopts the traits of a more dominant culture so completely that the two cultures become indistinguishable
Two goals of folk culture 1. keeping other cultures out to avoid assimilation. (ie. create a boundary around itself) 2. keeping their own culture in. (ie. avoid cultural appropriation-the adoption of customs by other cultures
What role does place play in maintaining customs? By defining a place (a town or a neighborhood) or a space for a short amount of time (an annual festival) as representing a culture and its values, members of a local culture can maintain (or reestablish) its customs and reinforce its beliefs.
Neolocalism seeking out the regional culture and reinvigorating it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world.
Rural Folk Cultures Can better separate their culture from others and from popular culture. (Amish, Mennonites, Hutterites & Mormons have done this Can define their own space.
Urban Folk Cultures Can create ethnic neighborhoods within cities. Creates a space to practice customs.
Commodification taking something that is essential to a culture and using it for profit.
Authenticity the truthfulness of origins, attributions, commitments, sincerity, devotion, and intentions; the quality of being authentic
Distance Decay vs. Time space compression With Distance Decay, the likelihood of diffusion decreases as time and distance from the hearth increases. With Time-Space Compression, the likelihood of diffusion depends upon the connectedness among places.
How is pop culture characterized? Characterized by: Quickly changing attributes. Urban population. Globalization. Uniform landscapes.
US Pop Culture Hearths New York Los Angeles
Reterritorialization occurs when an aspect of popular culture is modified to adapt locally-e.g. Japanese baseball
Relocation Diffusion Spread of an idea or trait through the physical movement of people from one place to another. Ex: spread of baseball to Japan, spread of English to the British Colonies
Syncretism Syncretism-a fusion of old and new to create a new cultural trait EX: Shalom Y'all
Cultural Landscape The imprint of people on the land-how humans use, alter and manipulate the landscape to express their identity. Examples; Architecture of buildings Methods of tilling the soil Means of transportation Clothing and adornment Sights, sounds and smells
Popular Cultural Landscapes Interstate highways Strip malls Restaurant chains skyscrapers
Placelessness the loss of uniqueness in a cultural landscape – one place looks like the next.
Building Materials One way we classify folk houses and farmsteads is by the type of building materials used Structures tend to blend nicely with the natural landscape Farm dwellings range from: massive houses of stone for permanency, to temporary brush thatch huts
Cultural Adoption When cultures adopt certain traits from other cultures.
Cultural Possibilism The idea that an environment influences, but does not strictly determine, how a culture interacts with the environment
Why do recent college grads prefer to move into city neighborhoods rather than rural area neighborhoods? The suburbs are too boring and not fun for young people. Younger people like the cultural amenities the city has to offer. Many college grads who are childless could care less about the school systems which have a reputation for being bad in the city.
Functional/Nodal Region A region with a center hub (node) surrounded by interconnecting linkages. Usually connections relate to trade, communication, transportation, etc.
World Pop Culture Hearths Tokyo New York London
What environmental conditions influence the choice of construction materials? Climate, Vegetation, Geomorphology(physical features)
Created by: brucelucana