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chapter 28

med surg

a antitrypsin a serum protein produced by the liver and normally found in the lungs that inhibits proteolytic enzymes of white cells from lysing lung tissue; genetic deficiency of this protein can cause emphysema
absorption atelectasis alveolar collapse that occurs when high concentrations of oxygen are given and oxygen replaces nitrogen in the alveoli; if airway obstruction occurs, the oxygen is obsorbed into the bloodstream and the alveoli collapse
asthma a chronic inflammatory lung disease that results in airflow obstruction
centrilobular emphysema type of emphysema often associated with chronic bronchitis in which respratory bronchioles enlarge, the walls are destroyed, and the bronchioles become confluent
centrilobular emphysema type of emphysema often associated with chronic bronchitis in which respiratory bronchioles enlarge, the walls are destroyed, and the bronchiles become confluent
chest percussion rhythmic percussion of a patient's chest with cupped hands to loosen retained respiratory secretions
chest physiotherapy series of maneuvers including percussion, vibration and posrural drainage designed to promote clearance of excessive respiratory secretions
chronic bronchitis obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by excessive production of mucus and chronic inflammaroty changes in the bronchi
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) pulmonary disease state characterized by the presence of airflow obstruction caused by chronic bronchitis or emphysema; clinical use of the term indicates the presence of chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema
cor pulmonale; hypertrophy of the right side of the heart, with or without heart failure, resulting from pulmonary hypertension
cystic fibrosis an autosomal recessive, multisystem disease characterized by altered function of the exocrine glands involving primarily the lungs, pancreas, and sweat glands
diaphragmatic breathing breathing with the use of the diaphragm to achieve maximum inhalation and slow respiratory rate
dry powder inhaler dry powdered drug delivered by inhalation
emphysema an abnormal permanent enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles, accompanied by destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis
hypercapnia high arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2>45mm Hg); also called hypocarbia
hyperresponsiveness excessive or exaggerated response to a stimulus; in asthma, leads to bronchoconstriction in response to physical, chemical, or pharmacologic stimuli
hypocapnia low arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 35-45mm Hg)
metered-dose inhaler areosolized drug delivered in a specific amount by activating the inhaler or by inhaling
normocapnia normal arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 35-45 mm Hg)
O2 toxicity a condition of onygen overdosage caused by prolonged exposure to high lievels of oxygen; may inactivate pulmonary surfactant and lead to development of acute respiratory distress syndrome
Created by: crystalih