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Blood and Lymphatic
Blood and Lymphatic Systems Chapter 9
|7-9% body weight The average person has about 5 liters (more than a gallon) of blood
|Transportation - gases, nutrients, wastes, and hormones. Regulation - pH, fluid balance, and body temperature Protection- from disease and blood loss
|Plasma: 55% Blood cells: 45% Erythrocytes(RBC) Thrombocytes(Plt) Leukocytes(WBC)
|colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph.91% water 8% Plasma Proteins 1% nutrients, electrolytes, hormones, enzymes, gases, and other materials that move through the blood
|The main organ to remove old and damaged RBCs from the circulation:
|Red Blood Cells (RBC)
|RBC to WBC ratio 1000:1; Biconcave-shape No nucleus, mitochondria 120 day lifespan transport of oxygen from lungs to body tissues 4.5-6 million per cubic millimeter of blood Main component: hemoglobin(iron and globin)
|Leukocytes (white blood cells, WBC)
|protect the body by destroying pathogens, remove foreign material and cellular debris
|process by WBCs that destroys pathogens, remove foreign material and cellular debris.
|When monocytes enlarge and mature. Essential to the immune system and found in the lymphoid tissues, lymph nodes, tonsils and spleen
|smallest formed element, are not cells, but fragments released from bone marrow - essential in blood clotting /coagulation
|4 blood groups(types):
|A, B, AB, O
|condition that cause clumping of red blood cells and antibodies in plasma, due to mismatched blood transfusions
|Type 0 Blood
|universal donor - contains neither A or B antigens
|Type AB Blood
|universal recipient - contains no anti- A or anti-B antibodies.
|is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot. It potentially results in hemostasis
|Decrease in hemoglobin in the blood, resulting in a deficiency of oxygen being delivered to the cells. Fatigue, pallor, SOB, fainting
|is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells are damaged.
|due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of RBCs, either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular), can lead to jaundice
|Iron Deficiency Anemia
|a lack of iron, most common type Unusual obsessive food cravings, known as pica; brittle spoon-shaped nails caused by increased iron demand / loss or decreased iron intake A low serum ferritin is the most sensitive lab test
|the intestines cannot properly absorb vitamin B12, common causes: weakened stomach lining (atrophic gastritis)
|Anemia in CKD
|When the kidneys are diseased or damaged, they do not make enough EPO. As a result, the bone marrow makes fewer red blood cells, causing anemia.
|Sickle Cell Anemia
|Chronic hereditary form of hemolytic anemia. Shape like crescent in the presence of low oxygen concentration Sickle cell trait Vs sickle cell disease Most typically among persons of African decent
|is caused by sickle-shaped red blood cells that obstruct capillaries and restrict blood flow to an organ resulting in ischemia, pain, necrosis, and often organ damage.
|Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS)
|is defined by at least 2 of the following signs or symptoms: chest pain, fever, pulmonary infiltrate or focal abnormality, respiratory symptoms, or hypoxemia.
|a mostly inherited genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots, this results in people bleeding longer after an injury, easy bruising, and an increased risk of bleeding inside joints or the brain.
|a malignant progressive disease in which the bone marrow and other blood-forming organs produce increased numbers of immature or abnormal leukocytes
|ALL(acute lymphocytic leukemia)
|the cancerous change takes place in a type of marrow cell that normally goes on to form lymphocytes is the most common type of leukemia in young children The survival rates vary by age: 85% in children and 50% in adults
|AML(acute myelogenous leukemia)
|the cancerous change takes place in a type of marrow cell that normally goes on to form red blood cells, some other types of white cells, and platelets. occurs more commonly in adults than in children The five-year survival rate is 40%
|characterized by the excessive buildup of relatively mature, but still abnormal, white blood cells, mostly occurs in older people
|cancer of plasma cells, considered treatable but generally incurable
|Plasma Cell Myeloma
|is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies.
|neoplasm in which the bone marrow makes too many RBCs, it may also result in the overproduction of WBCs and platelets
|a condition of red or purple discolored spots on the skin that do not blanch on applying pressure. The spots are caused by bleeding underneath the skin, They measure 0.3–1 cm (3–10 mm)
|Is genetic disorder Hereditary form of hemolytic anemia Alpha and beta hemoglobin chains are defective, creating hypochromic microcytic RBC It is most common among people of Italian, Greek, Middle Eastern, South Asia, and African descent
|Complete Blood Cell Count(CBC)
|measures the levels of RBCs, WBCs, platelet levels, hemoglobin and hematocrit
|The lymphatic system is made up of Lymph, Lymphatic Tissue and...