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A&P 2 Chapter 19-21

Blood, The Heart, Blood & Circulation

Know the functions of blood. transportation of dissolved substances, regulation of pH and ions, restriction of fluid loss at injury site, defense against toxins and pathogens, and stabilization of body temperature
Know the characteristics of whole blood. red, sticky and salty, has a pH 7.4, temperature: 39 degrees C 100.4 degrees F and consists of plasma: formed elements and RBCs
The combination of plasma and formed elements is called ______ whole blood
Formed elements makes up what percentage of the blood? 45%
Another name for Red Blood Cells (RBCs)? erythrocytes
Which organ secretes most of the plasma proteins? liver
Most abundant plasma protein is? albumins
Which plasma protein is essential in body defense? immunoglobulins
Which plasma protein is responsible for osmotic pressure? albumin
Plasma protein essential for blood coagulation (clotting). fibrinogen
The hormone that regulates red blood cell production is _______ erythropoietin (EPO)
Where does RBC originate in an adult? red bone marrow
Iron is stored or transported by which plasma proteins? haemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochromes
What would happen to hematocrit or RBC if a person moves from sea level to high altitude? there is an increase in breathing/heart rate, additional RBCs and capillaries are produced to carry more oxygen and there is an increase in the vascular network of muscles which enhances the transfer of gases
What is the cause of sickle cell anemia? a genetic disorder in which erythrocytes take on an abnormal curved or "sickle shape
Know normal hemoglobin rates for males and females 5-6 liters for males 4-5 liters for females
Know the role of kidney in RBC production it produces the hormone erythropoietin, which regulates blood formation, in turn produces more red blood cells from the hemocytoblast
What circumstances would cause erythropoietin levels to increase? low blood oxygen
Know dietary factors that are necessary for RBC production. iron, protein, vitamins and minerals
Know how hemoglobin and its components are recycled. hemoglobin produced in bone marrow by erythrocytes until destruction. It's broken down in the spleen & its components, iron are recycled to the bone marrow. Other components, heme groups, are broken down into bilirubin for eventual elimination from body
What would increase bilirubin levels? prehepatic jaundice
A green bruise on the skin is due to the recycling of ____ bilirubin
Aged or damaged RBC broken down by macrophages in _____ spleen, liver and bone marrow
If someone donates blood, what cells type would you except to increase? RBCs
Know the blood types and the associated antigen and antibodies. Type, A has antigen A only ,Type B has antigen B only, Type AB has both antigen A and B, and Type O has neither A nor B
An allergic reaction would increase which WBC? monocytes
A large phagocytic WBC that spend most of the time outside the blood as fixed and free phagocytic cells? monocytes
WBC that releases histamine at site of injury? basophils
An infected wound would typically contain _____ tissue fluids, dead neutrophils, cellular debris and pus
Be able to distinguish the different types of WBCs neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, monocyte and lymphocyte
What is the role of platelets? coagulation, to plug ruptured blood vessels to prevent loss of blood
What activates the intrinsic pathway of coagulation? extrinsic clotting cascade
Enzyme that digest fibrin? plasmin
Why is Vitamin K important to the clotting process? it's essential for forming prothrombin which permits proper clotting of blood
What is cardiac tamponade? compression of the heart caused by fluid collecting in the sac around the heart. Symptoms include: low BP, shortness of breath and lightheadedness
Fetal blood flow through the heart was permitted by which structure? foramen ovale
The direct interconnection between arteries is called an arterial _____ anastomoses
What is the purpose of the AV valves? separate the atria from the ventricles and allows blood to flow from the atria to the ventricles, BUT prevents flow in the opposite direction
Which region of thoracic cavity can the heart, thymus, and esophagus occupy? mediastinum
What artery takes blood to the myocardium? coronary artery
Where are the pacemaker cells (SA node) located? in the upper posterior portion of the right atrial wall of the heart
Due to long refractory period in cardiac action potential the cardiac muscle cannot exhibit ______ tetany
Considering the left ventricle, why does isovolumetric ventricular contraction occur during ventricular systole? aortic pressure is higher than ventricular pressure and the ventricle must pressurize the blood to open the aortic valve
A heart murmur might be caused by? aortic valve insufficiency, mitral valve insufficiency, pulmonic valve insufficiency and swirling of blood in the ventricle
Heart rate is controlled by neurons of the cardiovascular center located in the _____ medulla oblongata
Cardiac output can be increased by? decreasing end systolic volume, increasing stroke volume, increasing ejection fraction and increasing heart rate
Slower than normal heart rate is termed? bradycardia
What could increase blood flow to the tissues? an increase in blood pressure
Which part of the vascular system functions as blood reservoir and contains over 60% of the body's blood? veins
Why do people with advanced kidney disease commonly develop anemia? Because they don't make enough erythropoietin, causing bone marrow to make less RBSs, causing anemia
What is the process of RBC maturation? Day1: proerythroblast Day2: basophilic erythroblast Day3: polychromatophilic erythroblast, Day4: normoblast, ejection of nucleus (enters circulation), mature RBC Day 5-7: reticulocyte
What are the characteristics of WBCs? 1) Neutrophil:50-70%, attack/digest bacteria 2) Eosinophil:2-4%, attack objects coated with antibodies 3)Basophils: less than 1%, migrate to injury site 4) Monocyte:2-8%, aggressive phagocytes 5) Lymphocyte:20-30%, migrate from bloodstream
Describe the process (phases) homeostasis 1) vascular phase: vasoconstriction 2) platelet phase: platelets arrive @ area & form plug 3)coagulation: extrinsic pathway & intrinsic pathway - both activates series of proteins, and X factor which starts the common pathway
What are the differences in arteries and veins? Arteries: carries oxygenated blood away from heart, thick walled, reddish in color, and blood moves with pressure. Veins: carries deoxygenated blood in the heart, thin walled, bluish in color, and moves under very low pressure
What is the importance of the continuous movement of water out of the capillaries and back into the bloodstream by way of the lymphatic system? 1) ensures plasma & interstitial fluid are in constant communication 2) accelerates distribution of nutrients, hormones & dissolved gases throughout tissues 3) assists in transport of insoluble lipids & tissue proteins 4) has a flushing action
Know the blood flow through the heart. superior vena cava>inferior vena cava>right atrium>tricuspid valve>right ventricle>pulmonary valve>pulmonary artery>lungs>left atrium>bicuspid valve>left ventricle>aortic valve>aorta>rest of the body
What is the cause of thalessimia anemia? a decrease in the amount of normal physiologic hemoglobin produced
What is the cause of pernicious anemia? lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body
Another name for White Blood Cells (WBCs)? leukocytes
Another name for platelets? thrombocytes
Created by: jnipper
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