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Ch. 18-The Courts

the US courts system

QuestionAnswer
TRUE or FALSE: The Constitution created a Supreme Court, legislative courts, and state courts. False
Most cases heard in the United States are heard in ____________________ courts. State
The 94 federal district courts, 12 U.S. Courts of Appeals, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, and the U.S. Court of International Trade, and the Supreme Court are the _______________________ courts. constitutional
The U.S. Court of Federal Claims, Territorial Courts, Courts of the District of Columbia, U.S. Tax Court, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, and the U.S. Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims are the __________________ courts, or special court legislative
_______________________ is a court’s legal authority to hear a case. Jurisdiction
Cases that can only be heard in federal courts have ____________________ jurisdiction, while a court in which a case is first heard has ______________________ jurisdiction. exclusive; original
Cases that can be heard in either federal or state courts have ____________________ jurisdiction. concurrent
The ___________________ appoints all federal judges while the __________________ confirms his or her appointments to the bench. President; Senate
TRUE or FALSE: There are no Constitutional qualifications to be on the Supreme Court, or other federal courts. True
___________________________________ is the practice in which a presidential nomination is submitted initially for approval to the senators from the nominee’s state. Senatorial courtesy
_____________ is the belief that Supreme Court justices should actively make policy and sometimes redefine the Constitution. Judicial activism
_____________________________________ is the belief that Supreme Court justices should not actively try to shape social and political issues or redefine the Constitution. Judicial restraint
The _______________ is the one who initiates a lawsuit while the ___________________ is the the party against whom a lawsuit is brought. plaintiff; defendant
Constitutional courts judges, including Supreme Court justices, are appointed for ____________ terms. life
Judges in special courts, depending on which special court it is, serve for four, eight , or ___________ year-terms. 15
At the federal level, __________________ courts are considered the “workhorses” as they hear 80% of all federal cases, both criminal and civil cases. district
A _______________ case, in the federal courts, is one in which a defendant is tried for committing some action that Congress has declared by law to be a federal crime. criminal
A federal ________________ case involves some noncriminal matter, such a dispute over the terms of a contract or a claim of patent infringement. civil
District court cases are heard usually by ________ judge(s), while appellate court cases are heard by _______ judge(s). 1; 3
The _________________________________ were established by Congress in 1891 to relieve the Supreme Court of much of the burden of hearing appeals from the district courts. U.S. Courts of Appeals
The state of Oregon is under the jurisdiction of the_______ Circuit Court of Appeals which is based in the city of San Francisco. 9th
____________________________ is the extraordinary power to decide the constitutionality of an act of government, whether executive, legislative, or judicial. Judicial review
The case of ______________ asserted the principal of judicial review. Marbury v. Madison (1803)
The Supreme Court consists of __________________ justices. 9
________________________ was the first woman appointed by the Supreme Court while ____________ __________________ was the first African American appointed. Sandra Day O'Connor; Thurgood Marshall
The Supreme Court has both ___________________ and ____________________ jurisdiction, but most of its cases come on appeal from the lower federal courts and from the highest state courts. original; appellate
The Supreme Court has ________________ jurisdiction in all cases in which one of the __________ is a party. original; states
The rule of _____________ concerns how the Supreme Court decides which cases it will hear. Four
A _______________________________ is an order made by the Supreme Court to a lower court, requesting the records of a particular trial for review. writ of certioari
The Supreme Court convenes on the first ________________ in the month of _______________ . Monday; October
The Supreme Court hears __________ arguments from the opposing lawyers and read __________ from the lawyers before the arguments begin. oral; briefs
The Supreme Court may also receive _______________________ briefs, or friend of the court briefs by persons who are not actual parties to a case but nonetheless have a substantial interest in the outcome. amicus curiae
The ___________________ opinion is the opinion of the Court. majority
A ______________________ opinion is an opinion that agrees with with the majority but written to make a point that was not made in the majority opinion. concurring
A _________________ opinion is an opinion disagreeing with the majority opinion of the Court. dissenting
_______________________ are examples to be followed in similar cases as they arise in lower courts or reach the Supreme Court. Precedents
The United States ____________________ can only be sued if it agrees to be sued. government
The Court of _________________________ hold trials throughout the country, hearing claims for damages against the federal government. U.S. Claims
The Virgin islands, the Northern Marianas, and Guam are under the jurisdiction of the ______________________ courts. Territorial
The _______________ , formerly known as the Court of Military Appeals, reviews more serious court-martial convictions. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces
Military _________________ are created by the Department of Defense to try enemy combatants, like the suspected terrorists held at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. commissions
The U.S. ______________________ hears civil tax cases involving the application of the tax laws. Tax Court
A ___________ jury is a group of people who evaluate whether there is enough evidence against a person to order him or her to stand trial, while a _____________ jury hears and decides the actual case. grand; petit
To find someone guilty in a criminal case the standard is _________________ , while in a civil case, the standard is “more likely than not. “ beyond a reasonable doubt