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Digestive System


Absorption Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream
Amino Acid Small building blocks of protein (like links in a chain), released when the proteins are digested
Amylase Enzyme (-ase) secreted by the pancreas and salivary glands to digest starch (amyl/o)
Anus Terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
Appendix Bind pouch handing from the cecum (in the right lower quadrant {RLQ}). It literally means handing (pend/o) onto (ap-, which is a form of ad-)
Bile Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up (emulsifies) large fat globules
Bilirubin Pigment released by the liver in bile
Bowel Intestine
Canine Teeth Pointed, dog-like teeth (canine means pertaining to dog) next to he incisions. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth
Cecum First part of the large intestine
Colon Portion of the large intestine consisting of the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments
Common Bile Duct Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. Also called the choledochus
Defecation Elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus
Deglutition Swallowing
Dentin Primary material found in the teeth It is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root
Digestion Breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms
Duodenum First part of the small intestine. Duo=2, den=10, measures 12 inches long
Eliminiation Act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials as feces
Emulsification Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat
Enamel Hard, outermost layer of the tooth
Enzyme Chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances
Esophagus Tube connecting the throat to the stomach
Fatty Acids Substances produced when fats are digested
Feces Solid waste; stool
Gallbladder Small sac under the liver; stores bile
Glucose Simple sugar
Glycogen Starch; glucose is stored in liver cells in this form
Hydrochloric Acid Substance produced in the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
Ileum Third part of the small intestine
Incisor Any one of four front teeth in the dental arch
Insulin Hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. It transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
Jejunum Second part of the small intestine
Lipase Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
Liver Large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen; secretes bile; stores sugar, iron and vitamins; produces blood proteins; destroys worn-out RBC; and filters out toxins; eights about 2.5-3 pounds
Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES) Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach, also called cardiac sphincter
Mastication Chewing
Molar Teeth Sixth, seventh and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch
Palate Roof of the mouth. The hard lies anterior to the soft and is supported by the upper jawbone (maxilla). The soft is the posterior fleshly part between the mouth and the throat
Pancreas Organ behind the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods)
Papillae Small projections on the tongue, nipple-like elevation
Parotid Gland Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear
Peristalsis Rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs
Pharynx Throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose
Portal Vein Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
Protease Enzyme that digests protein
Pulp Soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vesssels
Pyloric Sphincter Ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum
Pylorus Distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum
Rectum Last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus
Rugae Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
Saliva Digestive juice produced by salivary glands
Salivary Glands Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands
Sigmoid Colon Fourth and last, S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum
Sphincter Circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
Stomach Muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus
Triglycerides Fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol
Uvula Soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate
Villi Microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
Created by: gallo.mandy



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