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Muscular System

Muscular System Vocab and Terms

TermDefinition
Abduct to move away from the midline of the body
Actin a contractile protein of muscle
Action Potential the change in electrical potential of a muscle fiber when stimulated
Adduct to move towards the midline
Aerobic oxygen requiring
Aerobic Endurance the length of time a muscle can continue to contract using aerobic pathways
Aerobic Exercise exercise such as biking, swimming, jogging, that causes more efficient muscle and general body metabolism
Anaerobic not requiring oxygen
Anaerobic Threshold The point at which muscle metabolism converts to anaerobic glycolosis
Antagonist muscle that reverses or opposes the action of another muscle
Aponeurosis fibrous or membranous sheet connecting a muscle and the part it moves
Arrector Pili tiny, smooth muscle attached to hair follicles
Ataxia Disruption if muscle coordination resulting in inaccurate movements
Atrophy reduction in size or wasting away of an organ or cell resulting from disease or lack of use
Biceps two-headed, especially applied to certain muscles
Calcaneal tendon tendon that attaches the calf muscles to the heel bone; Achilles tendon
Calcium channel blockers drugs that interfere with the movement of calcium across the plasma membrane, thus inhibiting muscle contractions
Contraction to shorten or develop tension, an ability highly developed in muscle cells
Contracture fibrosis of connective tissue in skin, fascia, muscles, or joint capsules that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
Convulsion a rapid series of involuntary muscular contractions and relaxations, especially of the skeletal muscles
Cramp sustained spasm, or titanic contraction of an entire muscle, which lasts for just a few seconds or several hours, causing the muscle to become taut or powerful
Effector muscle capable of being activated by nerve endings
Electromyography the recording, study preparation, and interpretation of graphic record of the contractions of muscles as a result of electrical stimulation
Endomysium thin connective tissue surrounding each muscle cell
Epimysium sheath of fibrous connective tissue surrounding a muscle
Fascia layers of fibrous tissue covering and separating muscles
Fascicle bundle of muscle fibers bound together by connective tissue
Fibromyositis a group of conditions involving inflammation of a muscle, its connective tissue coverings and tendons, and capsules of nearby joints
Fibrosis the abnormal formation of, or degeneration into, fibrous tissue; may occur around the membranes of the lungs as a result off an inflammation or pneumonia; may also occur in and around the arteries
Fibrositis an inflammation and hyperplasia of white fibrous tissue, especially that which forms muscle sheaths and fascia layers
Fixator muscle that immobilizes one or more bones, allowing other muscles to act from a stable base
Flaccid a condition in which the muscles are uncommonly weak, flabby, or soft; may be indicative of a defect in muscular tone
Fulcrum the fixed point on which a lever moves when force is applied
Hernia protrusion of an organ through its body cavity wall
Hypertrophy increase in size of a tissue or organ independent of the body's general growth
Insertion movable attachment of a muscle
Irritability ability to respond to a stimulus
Isometric contraction contraction in which the muscle tension remains constant and the muscle shortens
Isotonic contraction contraction in which the muscle tension remains constant and the muscle shortens
Kymograph a recording instrument used in muscle physiology experiments
Lever system consists of a lever (bone), effort (muscle action), resistance (weight of object to be moved), and fulcrum (joint)
Mechanical advantage condition that occurs when the load is close to the fulcrum and the effort is applied far from the fulcrum
Mechanical disadvantage condition that occurs when the load is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum
Muscle fatigue state of physiological inability to contract; results from relative deficit of ATP, ionic imbalances
Muscle spindle encapsulated receptor found in skeletal muscle that is sensitive to stretch
Muscle tone sustained partial contraction of a muscle in response to stretch receptor inputs; keeps muscle healthy and ready to act
Myalgia Muscle pain
Myectomy surgical removal of a portion of a mucle
Myoclonus the spastic, shock-like contractions of a part of a muscle or the entire muscle, usually a symptom of a convulsive disorder
Myofibril rod-like bundle of contractile filaments found in muscle cells
Myofilament actin and myosin bands within sarcomeres
Myoglobin red pigment that stores oxygen within muscle cells
Myokymia an involuntary twitching or quivering of a muscle
Myoma a tumor characterized by containing muscle tissue
Myomalacia the abnormal softening of muscle tissue
Myopathy disease of muscles
Myosclerosis the abnormal softening of muscle tissue
Myosin one of the principal contractile proteins found in muscle
Myositis inflammation of a muscle or muscles
Myotonia a condition involving irregular tonic spasms of a muscle or the temporary rigidity of a muscle after normal contraction
Origin attachment of a muscle that remains relatively fixed during muscular contractions
Paralysis a temporary or permanent loss of functional motion or sensation of a muscle or muscles due to an impairment of the neural or muscular mechanism
Perimysium the sheath of connective tissue surrounding a bunch of muscle fibers
Peristalsis progressive, wavelike contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary canal or other hollow organs
Pronation inward rotation of the forearm causing the radius to cross diagonally over the ulna
Resistance exercise high intensity exercise in which the muscles are pitted against high resistance or immovable forces, and, as a result, muscle cells increase in size
RICE rest, ice, compression, and elevation; standard treatment for a pulled muscle or excessively stretched tendon or ligaments
Sarcolemma plasma membrane of muscle cell
Sarcomere the smallest contractile unit of muscle
Sarcoplasm cytoplasm of muscle cell but it contains unusually large amounts of stored glycogen and myoglobin
Spasm a sudden involuntary muscle twitch ranging in severity from merely irritating to very painful
Sphincter a circular muscle surrounding an opening; acts as a valve
Strain excessive stretching and possible tearing of a muscle due to muscle overuse or abuse
Supination the outward rotation of the palms causing palms to face anteriorly
Synergist muscle that aids the action of a prime mover by effecting the same movement or by stabilizing joints across which the prime mover acts to prevent undesirable movements
Tendonitis an inflammation of a tendon and the tendon-muscular attachment
Tetanus a state of sustained contraction of a muscle that is a normal aspect of skeletal muscle functioning
Twitch a single, rapid contraction of muscle in response to a stimulus
Created by: nduke2