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Child Health

Child Health Chapter 19

Well-child visit Current health status Progression of growth and development Need for immunizations
Immunization Process of creating immunity to a specific disease in an individual
Immunity State of being immune to or protected from a disease, especially an infectious disease
Recommended childhood immunizations Hepatitis B DTaP Hib Polio (IPV) MMR Varicella PCV
HepB protects against hepatitis B (infection of the liver)
DTaP protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (whooping cough)
Hib protects against Haemophilus influenzae type b. This infection used to be a leading cause of bacterial meningitis
PCV protects against pneumococcal disease
IPV protects against polio
RV protects against rotavirus, a major cause of diarrhea
Influenza protects against the flu. This is a seasonal vaccine that is given yearly.
MMR protects against measles, mumps, and rubella (German measles)
Varicella which protects against chickenpox
HepA which protects against hepatitis A
Immunizations - Newborns HepB: The first HepB vaccine is given at the time of birth. HepB is administered in three shots, preferably within six months. Most states require HepB vaccination for a child to enter school.
Immunizations - At 2 Months HepB dose two DTaP Tdap booster PCV Hib Polio (IPV) RV
Immunizations - At 4 Months DTaP PCV Hib IPV RV
Immunizations - At 6 Months HepB DTaP PCV Hib IPV RV Annual flu shots
Immunizations - At 1 Year MMr PCV Hib Varicella HepA seasonal infuenza
Immunizations - At 15 to 18 Months DTap seasonal influenza
Chickenpox (varicella) Viral disease of sudden onset with slight fever, successive eruptions of macules, papules, and vesicles on the skin, followed by crusting over of lesions with a granular scab Itching may be severe Infectious agent: Varicella-zoster virus
Scarlet fever (scarlatina) Acute, contagious disease characterized by sore throat, abrupt high fever, increased pulse, strawberry tongue, and point-like bright red rash on the body Infectious agent: Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci
Pertussis (whooping cough) An acute upper resp infectious disease that occurs mainly in kids; Chara. by violent cough; consists of series of several short coughs, followed by a long drawn inspiration during which the typical whoop is heard; Infectious agent: Bordetella pertussis
Asthma Paroxysmal dyspnea Severe attack of difficult breathing Accompanied by wheezing caused by a spasm of bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane
Asthmatic attack Starts suddenly w/coughing and a sensation of tightness in the chest; followed by slow, laborious, wheezy breathing Expiration is more strenuous and prolonged than inspiration Patient may assume a “hunched forward” position in an attempt to get more air
Status asthmaticus Severe asthma that is unresponsive to conventional therapy and lasts longer than 24 hours
Croup Childhood disease characterized by a barking cough, stridor, and laryngeal spasm Stridor = high-pitched musical sound when breathing in
Erythema infectiosum (5th d=Disease) Viral disease characterized by a face that appears as “slapped cheeks,” a fiery red rash on the cheeks Infectious agent: Human parvovirus
Impetigo Contagious superficial skin infection characterized by serous vesicles and pustules filled with millions of staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria, usually forming on the face
Mumps (infectious parotitis) Acute viral disease characterized by fever, swelling, and tenderness of one or more salivary glands, usually the parotid glands Infectious agent: Mumps virus
Roseola infantum Viral disease with a sudden onset of a high fever for 3 to 4 days, during which time the child may experience mild cold-like symptoms and slight irritability
Rubella (German measles, 3-day measles Mild febrile infectious disease resembling both scarlet fever and measles Chara. by a rash of both macules and papules that fades and disappears in 3 days Koplik’s spots and photophobia are not present with rubella Infectious agent: Rubella virus
Rubeola (red measles, 7-day measles) Acute, highly communicable viral disease Begins as an upper resp disorder Fever, sore throat, cough, runny nose, light sensitivity and conjunctivitis Typical red, blotchy rash appears 4 to 5 days after onset of symptoms Infectious agent: Measles virus
Autism Pervasive developmental disorder characterized by the individual being extremely withdrawn and absorbed with fantasy Individual suffers from impaired communication/social interaction skills Etiology unknown
Cleft Lip and Palate Cleft lip is a congenital defect in which there is an open space between nasal cavity and lip due to failure of soft tissue and bones in this area to fuse properly during embryonic development
Clubfoot (Talipes Equinovarus) Infant’s foot is fixed in plantar flexion (turned downward), deviates medially (turned inward), and heel is in an elevated position Foot cannot remain in normal position with sole of foot firmly on the floor
Coarctation of the Aorta Congenital heart defect characterized by a localized narrowing of the aorta Results in increased blood pressure in upper extremities and decreased blood pressure in lower extremities
Cryptorchidism Condition of undescended testicle(s) Absence of one or both testicles from the scrotum
Down Syndrome Congenital condition characterized by multiple defects and varying degrees of mental retardation; Trisomy 21; Low-set ears, short, broad appearance to the head, protruding tongue, short thick neck, simian line
Dwarfism Generalized growth retardation of the body due to the deficiency of the human growth hormone Also known as congenital hypopituitarism or hypopituitarism
Erythroblastosis Fetalis Hemolytic anemia that occurs in neonates due to a maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility, involving ABO grouping or Rh factors Also known as hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN)
Esophageal Atresia Congenital abnormality of esophagus due to its ending before it reaches the stomach either as a blind pouch or as a fistula connected to the trachea
Gigantism Proportional overgrowth of body’s tissue due to hypersecretion of human growth hormone before puberty Child experiences accelerated abnormal growth chiefly in long bones
Hyaline Membrane Disease Severe impairment of respiration in premature newborn Also known as respiratory distress syndrome of the premature infant (RDS)
Hydrocele Accumulation of fluid in any sac-like cavity or duct, particularly scrotal sac or along spermatic cord
Hydrocephalus Congenital disorder in which there is an abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain that causes the ventricles of the brain to dilate Results in increased head circumference in the infant with open fontanels
Intussusception Telescoping of a portion of proximal intestine into distal intestine, usually in the ileocecal region, causing an obstruction Typically occurs in infants and young children
Patent Ductus Arteriosus Abnormal opening between pulmonary artery and aorta caused by failure of fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth Defect seen primarily in premature infants
Phimosis Tightness of foreskin (prepuce) of penis of male infant that prevents it from being pulled back Opening of foreskin narrows due to tightness and may cause some difficulty with urination
Reye’s Syndrome Syndrome marked by severe edema of the brain and increased intracranial pressure, hypoglycemia, and fatty infiltration and dysfunction of the liver Symptoms may follow an acute viral infect., occurring in kids below the age of 18, often w/fatal results
Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) Serious form of child abuse, symptoms resulting from repetitive, violent shaking Violent shaking (forward and backward shaking) produces acceleration-deceleration forces within the head of the child that can cause brain injury
Spina Bifida Occulta A congenital defect of central nervous system in which back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed Dimpling over area may occur
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well, or virtually well, infant Also called “crib death”
Tay-Sachs Disease Cong. dis. caused by an enzyme deficiency; Occur around 6 mons; Progressive due to accum. of a lipid in the brain; Physical and mental retardation; Deafness, blindness w/cherry-red spot on ea. retina, convulsions, and paralysis; Death at 2 to 4 years
Tetralogy of Fallot Congenital heart anomaly that consists of four defects: Pulmonary stenosis Interventricular septal defect Dextroposition of the aorta so it receives blood from both ventricles Hypertrophy of the right ventricle Babies are termed “blue babies”
Defects of tetralogy of Fallot Pulmonary stenosis Interventricular septal defect Shifting of aorta to the right Hypertrophy of right ventricle
Transposition of the Great Vessels Condition in which two major arteries of the heart are reversed in position, resulting in two noncommunicating circulatory systems
Umbilical Hernia Outward protrusion of intestine through a weakness in abdominal wall around the umbilicus Umbilicus = navel or “belly button”
Heel puncture Method of obtaining a blood sample from a newborn or premature infant by making a shallow puncture of the lateral or medial area of the plantar surface of the heel “Heel stick”
Pediatric urine collection Pediatric urine collection bag is applied to the perineal area of the infant so urine can collect in the bag for a specimen Skin must be completely dry for the bag to adhere
Created by: wallace263
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