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Medical Terminology/Cardiovascular System

analgesic _ an-=without, algesi/o=sesitivity to pain, -ic=pertaining to Pertainting to relieving pain; a medication that relieves pain.
Anastomosis Surgical joining of two ducts, blood vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to the other. Restores normal blood flow to the area.
**Aneurysm Localized dilation of an artery formed at a weak point in the vessel wall. The weakened area balloons out with every pulsation of the artery. COMMON PLACE TO OCCUR IS THE AORTA.
Aneurysmectomy _ -ectomy=surgical removal Surgical removal of the sac of an aneurysm.
Anorexia Lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat.
Arthralgia _ arthr/o=joint, -algia=pain Joint pain.
Ascites An abnormal collection of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. Fluid contains large amounts of protein and electrolytes. Causes abdominal swelling.
Atherosclerosis _ ather/o=fatty, scler/o=hardening, -osis=condition Characterized by fatty deposits building up with in the inner layers of the walls of larger arteries.
Benign Noncancerous; not progressive.
Bruit (brew-EE) An abnormal sound or murmur heard when listening to a carotid artery, organ, or gland with a stethoscope.
Carditis _ card/o=heart, -itis=inflammation Inflammation of the heart muscles.
Claudication Cramplike pains in the calves of the legs caused by poor circulation to the muscles of the legs.
Coronary Artery _ coron/o=heart, -ary=pertaining to One of a pair of arteries that branch from the aorta. Supplies blood and oxygen to the heart muscle.
Cusp Any one of the small flaps on the valves of the heart.
Dependent Edema A fluid accumulation in the tissues influenced by gravity; usually greater in the lower extremities.
**Diastole The period of relaxation of the heart. When it takes in more blood to be oxygenated.
Dysrhythmia _ dys-=bad, difficult, painful, disordered; rhythm/o=rhythm, -ia=condition Abnormal rhythm.
Edema The localized or generalized collection of fluid within the body tissues, causing the area to swell.
Endocarditis _ endo-=within, cardi/o=heart, -itis=inflammation Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart.
Epicardium _ epi-=upon,over; cardi/o=heart The inner layer of the pericardium, which is the double-folded membrane that encloses the heart.
Hepatomegaly _ hepat/o=liver, -megaly=enlarged Enlargement of the liver.
Homan's Sign Pain felt in the calf of the leg, or behind the knee, when the examiner is purposely dorsiflexing the foot of the patient(bending the toes upward toward the foot). If the patient feels pain, it is called a positive ______sign.
Hyperlipidemia _ hyper-=excessive, -lipid/o=fat, -emia=blood condition An excessive level of fats in the blood.
Hypertension _ hyper-=excessive Elevated blood pressure persistently higher than 135/85 mmHg; high blood pressure.
Hypotension _ hypo-=under, below, beneath, less than normal Low blood pressure.
Infarction A localized area of necrosis(death) in tissue, a vessel, an organ, or a part resulting from lack of oxygen due to interrupted blood flow to the area.
Ischemia (iss-KEY-mee-ah) _ -emia=blood condition Decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ.
Lesion A wound, injury, or any pathological change in body tissue.
Lipid Any of a group of fats or fatlike substances found in the blood. Example: cholesterol, fatty acids, and triglycerides.
Lumen A cavity of the channel within any organ or structure of the body; the space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube.
Malaise _ mal-=bad,poor A vague feeling of body weakness or discomfort, often indicating the onset of an illness or disease.
Mediastinum The area between the lungs in the chest cavity that contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, and brochi.
Murmur A low-pitched humming or fluttering sound, as in a "heart-murmur," heard on auscultation.
Myocardium _ my/o=muscle, cardi/o=heart The middle muscular layer of the heart.
Nocturia _ noct/o=night, -uria=urine condition Urination at night.
Occlusion Closure, or state of being closed.
Orthopnea _ orth/o=straight, -pnea=breathing An abnormal condition in which a person sits up straight or stands up to breathe comfortably.
Pacemaker An Electric apparatus used for maintaining a normal heart rhythm by electrically stimulating the heart muscle to contract.
Palpable Detectable by touch.
Palpitation A pounding or racing of the heart, associated with normal emotional responses or with heart disorders.
Pericardial Pertaining to the pericardium.
**Pericardium _ peri-=around, cardi/o=heart The double membranous sac that encloses the heart and the origins of the great blood vessels.
Petechiae (peh-TEE-kee-ee) Small, purplish, hemorrhagic(excessive flow of blood) spots on the skin; may be due to abnormality in the blood-clotting mechanism of the body.
**Pitting Edema Swelling, usually of the skin of the extremeties, that when pressed firmly with a finger will maintain the dent produced by the finger.
Prophylactic An agent that protects against disease.
Pulmonary Artery _ pulmon/o=lungs, -ary=pertaining to One of a pair of arteries that transports deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation.
Pulmonary Circulation The circulation of deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation and back to the left atrium of the heart. SIMPLIFIED: circulation of deoxygenated blood from the heart, to the lungs, back to the heart.
Pulmonary vein One of four large veins (two from each lung) that returns oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the left atrium of the heart.
SA node Sinoatrial node; pacemaker of the heart. Located in the right atrium, initiates heartbeat and influences rate and rhythm of heart beat.
Septum A wall, or partition, that divides or separates two cavities.
**Serum sickness A hypersensitivity reaction that may occur two to three weeks after administration of an antiserum.
Sydenham's chorea A form of chorea(involuntary muscle twitching) associated with rheumatic fever, usually occuring in childhood.
systemic circulation The circulation of (oxygenated)blood from the left ventricle of the heart, throughout the body, and (deoxygenated blood)back to the right atrium of the heart.
**Systole The contraction phase of the heartbeat forcing blood into the aorta and the pulmonary arteries.
Thrombosis _ thromb/o=clot, -osis=condition The formation or existence of a blood clot.
Vasoconstriction Narrowing of the lumen(space within) of a blood vessel.
**Vegetation An abnormal growth of tissue around the valve.
angi/o vessel
arter/o; arteri/o artery
arteriol/o arteriole
ather/o fatty
cardi/o heart
coron/o heart
echo- sound
electr/o electrical, electricity
endo- within
-graphy process of recording
megal/o enlarged
my/o muscle
ventricul/o ventricle of the heart or brain
**Bradycardia _ brady-=slow, cardi/o=heart, -ia=conditin A slow heart rate characterized by a pulse rate under 60 beats per minute.
**Cyanosis _ cyan=blue, -osis=condition Slightly bluish, grayish, slatelike, or dark discoloration of the skin due to the presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood.
Dyspnea _ dys-=difficult, -pnea=breathing Air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain.
Pallor Lack of color; paleness.
**tachycardia Abnormal rapidity of heart action, usually defined as aheart rate over 100 beats per minute.
**angina pectoris Severe pain and constriction about the heart(caused by insufficient supply of blood to the myocardium) usually radiates down the left shoulder and down the left arm-creates a feeling of pressure in the anterior chest.
**congestive heart failure (CHF) Condition in which pumping ablility of the heart is progressively impaired to the point that it no longer meets bodily needs; also known as cardiac failure.**Characteristics: weakness, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort.
**left-sided cardiac failure left ventricle unable to pump blood that enters from the lungs.**Characteristics: Dyspnea, moist sounding cough, fatigue, tachycardia, restlessness, anxiety.
**right-sided cardiac failure right side of heart cannot empty blood received from venous circulation.**Characteristics: Edema of lower extremeties, weight gain, enlargement of liver, distended neck veins, Ascites, anorexia, nocturia, weakness.
**coronary artery disease Narrowing of the coronary arteries to the extent that adequate blood supply to the myocardium is prevented.
**percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) also called Balloon Angioplasty.
** coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)Procedure where grafts are made from veins from other parts of body and connected to the coronary artery above and below occlusion, restoring the normal flow of oxygenated blood to the myocardium.
**Raynaud's phenomenon Intermittent attacks of vasoconstriction of the arterioles; pallor of the fingers or toes. (initiated by exposure to cold or emotional disturbance).
**atrial fibrillation extremely rapid, incomplete contractions of the atria resulting in disorganized and uncoordinated twitchingof the atria. (rate of contrations may be as high as 350 to 600 beats per minute)
**ventricular fibrillation rapid, tremulous(quivering like a bowl of Jell-O), and ineffectual contractions of the ventricles.
**ventricular tachycardia (V-tach, VT) ventricles of the heart beat at a rate greater than 100 beats per minute. Characterized by three or more consecutive premature ventricular contractions.
**computed axial tomography _ tom/o=to cut, -graphy=process of recording (CAT-scan) a diagnostic X-ray technique that uses ionizing radiation to produce a cross-sectional image of the body, Often used to detect aneurysms of the aorta.
AS aortic stenosis
ASD atrial septal defect
**CABG coronary artery bypass graft
CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
**CHF congestive heart failure
**DVT deep vein thrombosis
ECG/EKG electrocardiogram
ECHO echocardiogram
**PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
**VT, V-tach ventricular tachycardia
**A-fib atrial fibrillation
**HTN hypertension
ICD implantable cardioversion defibrillator
Created by: crayzgirlme