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Special Senses

A&P II Ch 14

tinnitus ringing in the ear - sign of injury
vertigo sensation of spinning - disturbance of equilibrium
presbycusis loss of hearing due to aging
myringoplasty surgical removal of tympanic membrane
labyrinthitis inflammation of inner ear
blepharoptosis eyelid closes as a result of weakened muscle
optician fills RXs for glasses and contact lenses - not an MD
conjunctivitis pink eye - inflammation of conjuctiva (mucous membrane)
ophthalmologist MD - total eye care
glaucoma increase of intraocular pressure - damages optic nerve - blindness
stapedectomy micro-surgical removal of the stapes
Rhinne test examination that compares bone conduction and air conduction in an individual - tuning fork
electroretinogram recording of the changes in the electrical potential of the retina after the stimulation of light
myringotomy surgical incision into tympanic membrane
electronystagmography group of tests used in evaluating the vestiulo-ocular reflex
tonometry test determines intraocular pressure (air puff)
funduscopy examination of the fundus of the eye
laser iridectomy creating several small openings in the iris to allow aqueous humor to flow to the anterior chamber from the posterior chamber
photo-refractive keratectomy shaving a few layers of the corneal surface to reduce myopia
impacted cerumen accumulation of waxlike secretions in the external ear - may cause hearing loss
mastoiditis inflammatory process that is typically an acute expansion of the middle ear infection
hyperopia farsightedness - refractive error resulting in impaired close vision
myopia nearsightedness - refractive error resulting in impaired distant vision
blepharotosis drooping of the upper eyelid
cataract vision loss due to clouding of lens
diabetic retinopathy scarring of the retinal capillaries and leakage of blood - decline in sharpness of vision
keratitis inflammation of cornea
Meniere's chronic disease of inner ear characterized by vertigo, hearing loss, fullness in ear and tinnitus
ostoclerosis hearing loss due to the footplate of the stapes becoming immobile and secured to oval window
astigmatism refractive error causing light rays entering eye to be focused irregularly due to abnormally shaped cornea
blepharitis inflammation of eyelid margins
chalazion cyst or nodule on the eyelid
ectropion turning out of the eyelashes
hordeolum stye - bacterial infection of an eyelash follicle or sebaceous gland
nystagmus involuntary movement of the eyes
sclera white outer covering that surrounds eyeball - maintains shape and protects the eyeball
iris colored portion of the eye
pupil in center of the iris that controls amount of light entering the eye
conjunctiva thin, transparent tissue that covers outer surface of the eye
lacrimal gland upper outer edge of the eye - produces tears
lacrimal duct where tears drain from the eye
inner canthus aka medial canthus - where lacrimal/tear duct is located
cornea transparent, non vascular layer covering the colored part of the eye
choroid layer beneath the sclera - contains extensive capillaries that provide blood supply and nutrients to eye
lens colorless biconvex structure that aids in focusing
ciliary body secretes aqueous humor
suspensory ligaments attach to lens and hold it in place - help in focusing
retina third innermost layer - nerve layer that changes the energy of light rays into nerve impulses
cones responsible for visualizing colors, central vision and vision in bright light
rods responsible for vision in dim light and peripheral vision
optic nerve impulses from retina are transmitted through this nerve to the brain
optic disc "blind spot" - contains no rods or cones
aqueous humor clear watery fluid of anterior and posterior chamber
vitreous humor clear jellylike substance that gives shape to the eyeball located in posterior cavity
mydriatic agent that causes the pupil to dilate
miotic agent that causes the pupil to constrict
presbyopia occurs after age 40 - loss of close vision due to loss of elasticity (hyperopia after 40)
strabismus failure of eyes to gaze in same direction due to muscle weakness - convergent strabismus = crosseye, divergent strabismus = walleye
ambiopia aka diplopia - double vision
amblyopia reduced vision that is not correctable with lenses - dullness or dimness of vision
three section of ear external, middle, inner
external ear visible portion - contains auricle (pinna) & external auditory canal
middle ear contains three bones known as the auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes), the eustachian tube and oval window
malleus hammer shaped bone of middle ear - connected to tympanic membrane and transmits sound vibrations to incus
incus anvil shaped - transmits sound vibrations from malleus to stapes
stapes shaped like a tiny stirrup - transmits sound vibrations from incus to inner ear
eustachian tube connects middle ear to the pharynx
oval window separates middle ear from inner ear - base of stapes fits in oval window
inner ear mazelike structure consisting of bony and membranous structures which are surrounded by fluid
membranous structures of inner ear utricle and saccule, cochlear duct, membranes of semicircular canals
vestibule central portion of inner ear - contains utricle and saccule - sacs that aid in maintaining balance
cochlea snail-shaped bony structure - houses the organ of Corti = "true organ of hearing"
semicircular canals located in inner ear - located behind vestibule - three bony fluid filled loops that help maintain balance
bony structures of the inner ear vestibule, cochlea, semicircular canal
ophthalmoscopy examination of external and internal structures of eye using an ophthalmoscope
pathway of sound vibrations pinna, external auditory canal, tympanic membrane, malleus, incus, stapes, oval window, cochlea, organ of corti, auditory nerve fibers, cerebral cortex
otitis media inflammation of middle ear
otitis external swimmer's ear - inflammation of outer ear
mastoiditis inflammation of mastoid process
audiometry process of measuring how well one hears at various frequencies
otoscope instrument used to examine ear
Weber test evaluates auditory acuity to determine if hearing deficit is conductive or sensorineural loss - using a tuning fork
papilledema swelling of the optic disc
otaglia earache
organ of corti true organ of hearing
Created by: gcjlentz
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