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Mental Health

Mental Health Chapter 23

TermDefinition
Mental health Relative state of mind in which the person who is healthy is able to cope with and adjust to the recurrent stresses of everyday living in an acceptable way
Mental disorders Disturbances of emotional stability, as manifested in maladaptive behavior and impaired functioning
Defense mechanisms Body’s unconscious reaction to protect itself from conflicts or anxieties
Defense Mechanism - Compensation Effort to overcome, or make up for, real or imagined inadequacies
Defense Mechanism - Denial Refusal to admit or acknowledge the reality of something, thus avoiding emotional conflict or anxiety
Defense Mechanism - Displacement Process of transferring a feeling or emotion from the original idea or object to a substitute idea or object
Defense Mechanism - Introjection Individual unconsciously identifies with another person or with some object Individual assumes the supposed feelings and/or characteristics of the other personality or object
Defense Mechanism - Projection Act of transferring one’s own unacceptable thoughts or feelings on to someone else
Defense Mechanism - Rationalization Attempting to make excuses or invent logical reasons to justify unacceptable feelings or behaviors; most commonly used defense mechanism
Defense Mechanism - Regression Response to stress in which the individual reverts to an earlier level of development and comfort measures associated with that level of functioning
Defense Mechanism - Repression Involuntary blocking of unpleasant feelings and experiences from one’s conscious mind
Defense Mechanism - Sublimation Rechanneling or redirecting one’s unacceptable impulses and drives into constructive activities
Defense Mechanism - Suppression Voluntary blocking of unpleasant feelings and experiences from one’s mind
Mood Disorders Group of psychiatric disorders characterized by disturbances in physical, emotional, and behavioral response patterns
Extreme elation and agitation to extreme depression with suicidal potential includes: Bipolar disorders Cyclothymic disorder Major depressive disorder
Bipolar Disorders (Manic-Depressive) Psychological disorder characterized by episodes of mania, depression, alternating between the two, or a mixture of the two moods simultaneously
Characteristics of mania (Bipolar Disorder) Extreme excitement, hyperactivity Agitation, overly talkative Flight of ideas, fleeting attention Sometimes violent, destructive, and self-destructive behavior May have decreased need for sleep and seemingly limitless energy
Characteristics of depression (Bipolar Disorder) Symptoms are inappropriate and out of proportion with reality Exaggerated feelings of sadness Discouragement Hopelessness
Cyclothymic Disorder Chronic mood disorder characterized by numerous periods of mood swings from depression to happiness At least 2 years in duration
Major Depressive Disorder A disorder chara. by 1 or more episodes of depressed mood that lasts at least 2 wks and has at least 5 add'l symptoms of dep.; Exaggerated feelings of sadness, discouragement, hopelessness, worthlessness, or guilt that are out of proportion w/reality
Anxiety Disorders Individual feels increased tension, apprehension, a painfully increased sense of helplessness, a feeling of uncertainty, fear, jitteriness, and worry Includes: Generalized anxiety disorder Panic disorder Phobic disorder
Anxiety Disorders Individual feels increased tension, apprehension, a painfully increased sense of helplessness, a feeling of uncertainty, fear, jitteriness, and worry Includes: Obsessive-compulsive disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder
Observable signs of anxiety Includes but not limited to: Restlessness Poor eye contact Glancing about Facial tension Dilated pupils Increased perspiration Constant focus on self
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Disorder characterized by chronic, unrealistic, and excessive anxiety and worry Symptoms have usually existed for at least six months or more Symptoms have no relation to any specific cause
Panic Disorder Characterized by recurrent panic attacks that come on unexpectedly, followed by at least one month of persistent concern about having another panic attack
Panic DisorderCharacteristics Intense apprehension, fear, or terror, often associated with feelings of impending doom, Dyspnea, Dizziness, Sweating, Trembling, Chest pain or palpitations of the heart
Phobic Disorder Anxiety disorder characterized by an obsessive, irrational, and intense fear of a specific object, of an activity, or of a physical situation
Acrophobia Fear of high places that results in extreme anxiety
Aerophobia Morbid fear of fresh air or drafts
Agoraphobia Fear of being in an open, crowded, or public place, such as a field, congested street, or busy department store, where escape may be difficult
Arachnophobia Fear of spiders
Claustrophobia Fear of closed spaces
Nyctophobia Obsessive, irrational fear of darkness
Zoophobia Persistent, irrational fear of animals, particularly dogs, snakes, insects, and mice
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsions that are severe enough to be time consuming (they take more than one hour a day), or to cause obvious distress or a notable handicap
Obsessions Repeated, persistent thoughts or impulses that are irrational and with which the mind is continually and involuntarily preoccupied
Compulsions Irresistible, repetitive, irrational impulses to perform an act Behavior patterns that are intended to reduce anxiety, not to provide pleasure or gratification
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Individual experiences characteristic symptoms following exposure to an extremely traumatic event Individual reacts with horror, extreme fright, or helplessness to the event
Hypochondriasis Chronic, abnormal concern about the hlth of the body Extreme anxiety, depression Unrealistic interpretation of real or imagined phys. symptoms as indications of a serious illness or disease despite rational medical evidence that no disorder is present
Fetishism the pathological displacement of sexual gratification to an object or fetish
Transvestic fetishism sexual disorder in which the focus of the fetish involves cross-dressing Male usually keeps a collection of female clothing that he intermittently uses to cross-dress
Anorexia Nervosa Disorder characterized by an emotional disturbance concerning body image, prolonged refusal to eat followed by extreme weight loss, amenorrhea, and a lingering, abnormal fear of becoming obese Seen primarily in adolescent girls
Bulimia Nervosa An uncontrollable craving for food, often resulting in eating binges, followed by vomiting to eliminate food from stomach
Cognitive disorders Those that affect the individual’s ability to perceive, think, reason, and remember Organic mental disorders Includes: Amnesia disorders Delirium Dementia
Amnesia Disorders Characterized by short-term and long-term memory deficits Have normal attention but are unable to learn new information Unable to recall previously learned information
Delirium Frenzied excitement that occurs rapidly and is characterized by difficulty maintaining and shifting attention Individual is easily distracted and must be constantly reminded to focus attention
Dementia Progressive, organic mental disorder characterized by chronic personality disintegration, confusion, disorientation, stupor, deterioration of intellectual capacity and function, and impairment of control of memory, judgment, and impulses
Substance-Related Disorders Associated with the use of drugs
Hallucinogens Create perceptual distortions of the mind
Central nervous system depressants Slow activity of the CNS, causing impaired motor activity, judgment, and concentration
Central nervous system stimulants Increased activity of CNS, causing elevated blood pressure, heightened behavioral activity and alertness
Schizophrenia gross distortion of reality, disturbances of language and communication, withdrawal from social interaction, and disorganization and fragmentation of thought, perception, and emotional reaction
Schizophrenia - Hallucinations Person perceives something that does not exist in the external environment
Schizophrenia - Delusions Person firmly holds to a persistent abnormal belief or perception despite evidence to the contrary
Schizophrenia - Disorganized speech Person may move rapidly from one topic to another, making little sense
Schizophrenia - Disorganized or catatonic behavior Person may alternate between agitation and non-purposeful or random body movements to little or no behavioral response to the environment
Schizophrenia - Flattened affect Individual shows little or no emotional response to the environment
Paranoid Schizophrenia Condition characterized by the individual being overly suspicious of others and having hallucinations and delusions
Somatoform disorders Any group of neurotic disorders characterized by symptoms suggesting physical illness or disease No demonstrable organic causes of physiologic dysfunctions
Sleep disorders May be related to stress, anxiety, or physiological problems
Factitious disorders Characterized by physical or psychological symptoms that are intentionally produced or feigned to assume the sick role
Malingering Willful and deliberate faking of symptoms of a disease or injury to gain some consciously-desired end Of the conscious mind Results in secondary gain
Conversion Disorder Disorder in which the individual represses anxiety experienced by emotional conflicts by converting the anxious feelings into physical symptoms that have no organic basis, but are perceived to be real by the individual
Munchausen Syndrome (by Proxy) Somewhat rare form of child abuse in which a parent of a child falsifies an illness in a child by fabricating or creating the symptoms, and then seeks frequent medical attention for the child
Narcolepsy Sleep disorder that is characterized by repeated, uncontrollable desire to sleep, often several times a day Attacks must occur daily over a period of at least three months to establish the diagnosis
Pain Disorder Psychological disorder in which the patient experiences pain in the absence of physiologic findings
Dissociative Identity Disorders Emotional conflicts that are so repressed into the subconscious mind that a separation or split in personality occurs Results in an altered state of consciousness or a confusion in identity
Dissociative Identity Disorders Emotional conflicts that are so repressed into the subconscious mind that a separation or split in personality occurs Includes: Dissociative amnesia Dissociative fugue Dissociative identity disorder
Sexual dysfunctions Disturbance in sexual desire and sexual response Cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty
Gender identity disorders Strong and persistent cross-gender identification accompanied by persistent discomfort with one’s assigned sex
Sexual Sadism/Sexual Masochism Sexual disorder that involves the act (real, not simulated) of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer, or the act of inflicting psychological or physical suffering on the victim
Personality Disorders Rigid, inflexible, and maladaptive patterns of behavior that impair a person’s ability to function well in society due to a limited ability to adapt
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Persistent inattention and hyperactivity, impulsivity, or both Formerly known as attention-deficit disorder (ADD)
Behavior therapy Psychotherapy that seeks to modify observable, maladjusted patterns of behavior by substituting new responses to given stimuli Behavior modification
Drug therapy Psychotropic drugs to treat mental disorders Drugs prescribed for their effects in relieving symptoms of anxiety, depression, or other mental disorders, such as schizophrenia
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) Process of passing an electrical current through the brain to create a brief seizure, much like a spontaneous seizure from some forms of epilepsy Shock therapy
Family therapy Psychotherapy that focuses treatment on the process between family members that supports and sustains symptoms Group therapy with family members composing the group
Group therapy Application of psychotherapeutic techniques within a small group of people who experience similar difficulties Also known as encounter groups
Hypnosis Passive, trancelike state of existence that resembles normal sleep during which perception and memory are altered, resulting in increased responsiveness to suggestion
Play therapy Psychotherapy in which a child plays in a protected and structured environment with games and toys provided by a therapist who observes the behavior, effect, and conversation of the child to gain insight into thoughts, feelings, and fantasies
Psychoanalysis Psychotherapy that analyzes the individual’s unconscious thought, using free association, questioning, probing, and analyzing; "free association" - say aloud anything that comes to mind no matter how minor or embarrassing
Psychoeducation Involves teaching people about their illness, how to treat it, and how to recognize signs of relapse so they can seek treatment before condition worsens or returns
Draw-A-Person (DAP) Personality test that is based on the interpretation of drawings of human figures of both sexes Individual is asked to draw human figures and talk about them
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Self-report personality inventory test that consists of 550 statements that can be answered “true,” “false,” or “cannot say” Statements vary widely in content and are sometimes repeated in various ways throughout the test
Rorschach inkblot Personality test that involves the use of 10 inkblot cards, half black and white, and half in color Cards are shown to the individual, one at a time Person is asked to describe what he or she sees in the card
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) To elicit stories that reveal something about an ind’s personality Series of 30 black-and-white pictures, ea on an indiv. card When cards are shown, indiv. is asked to tell a story about ea picture, providing all background info and details
Intelligence testing Designed to measure an individual’s ability to adapt and constructively solve problems in the environment First successful test of intelligence developed by Alfred Binet, a French psychologist
Mental age (MA) Age level at which one functions intellectually
Chronological age (CA) Age of the individual, expressed as time beyond birth
Intelligence quotient (IQ) Numeric expression of an individual’s intellectual level MA divided by CA multiplied by 100 = IQ
Intelligence tests used to measure IQ Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale WAIS-III: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale –III WISC-III: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III WPPSI-III: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-R Third Edition
Created by: wallace263