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Urinary System

Urinary System Vocab Chapter 15

Urinary System maintains homeostasis; removes and restores solutes and fluids; maintains blood volume and concentration
Organs of the Urinary System 2 Kidneys, 2 Ureters, 1 Bladder, 1 Urethra
Excretion nitrogenous, drugs and toxins; the removal of organic waste from the body fluids
Kidneys paired organs that are reddish in color; about size of a fist; located just above waist, placed against posterior body wall; approx. between T12 and L3
Hilum passage area for ureters, vessels, nerves
Renal Capsule innermost, barrier
Adipose Capsule middle, protection
Renal Fascia outer, anchors kidney
Adrenal Gland located on top of kidney, responsible for releasing adrenaline into blood system, cause fight or flight response
Medulla inner area of kidney; striated appearance, 8 to 12 renal pyramids
Cortex outer area of kidney; smooth texture; extends from renal capsule to base of renal pyramids and in-between pyramids
Nephrons functional units of the kidney; microscopic renal tubule
Minor Calyx a cup shaped cavity at the base of the real papilla, which drains urine from the renal papillae into the major calyxes
Major Calyces the cavity formed by the convergence of several minor calyces which drain urine from the minor calyces into the renal pelvis
Bowman's Glomerular Capsule cup-shaped end of a renal tubule containing a glomerulus
Endothelial-Capsular Membrane nephron filter
Renal Tubule Reabsorption and Secretion
Collecting Ducts empty urine into renal pelvis
Nephrons Functions Control blood concentration and volume; Regulate blood pH; Remove toxins from blood; Stimulate red blood cell production
Urine 95% water, urea, uric acid, electrolytes; 99% is reabsorbed back into the body; 1-2 liters produced every day
Urine Movement Peristalsis, gravity, hydrostatic pressure
Urinary bladder held in position by.... Peritoneum
Trigone region between openings of ureters and urethra
Detrusor Muscle 3 layered smooth muscle
Internal Urinary Sphincter involuntary control
Micturition expulsion of urine from bladder
External urinary sphincter voluntary control
Micturition Reflex During urination: Detrusor muscle contracts; Muscles of pelvic floor and abdominal wall contract; External urinary sphincter relaxes and urine moves from bladder to the outside
Urea Waste product of protein digestion
Uric acid Waste product of nucleic acid digestion
Creatinine Waste product of creatine phosphate digestion in muscles and dietary protein digestion
Ureter One of the pair of tubes that drains urine into the urinary bladder
Urinary Bladder Stores urine
Urethra Tube that exits the body from bladder
Epispadias a congenital defect in which the urethra opens on the upper side of the penis at some point near the glans
Pyelitis inflammation of the renal pelvis
Renal Pelvis central collecting part of the kidney that narrows into the large upper end of the ureter; receives urine through the calyces and drains it into the ureters
Turbid cloudy
Ureterectasis stretching or dilation of a ureter
Ureterorrhagia excessive flow or discharge of blood from the ureter
Urethropexy surgical fixation of the urethra
Urethrostenosis narrowing of the urethra
Uremia presence of excessive amounts of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood; also called azotemia
Glomerulus a ball-shaped collection of very tiny coiled and intertwined capillaries, located in the cortex of the kidney
Cystometer an instrument that measures bladder capacity in relation to changing pressure
Cystopexy surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall
Anuria cessation (stopping) of urine production or a urinary output of less than 100mL per day
Bacteriuria bacteria in the urine
Dysuria painful urination
Enuresis condition of urinary incontinence; especially at night in bed; bed wetting
Glycosuria abnormal presence of sugar, especially glucose, in the urine
Hematuria abnormal presence of blood in the urine
Ketonuria presence of excessive amounts of ketone bodies in the urine
Nocturia urination at night; also called nycturia
Oliguria secretion of diminished amount of urine in relation to the fluid intake; scanty urine output
Polydipsia excessive thirst
Polyuria excretion of abnormally large amounts of urine
Pyuria excessive number of WBC in the urine; sign of UTI; pus in the urine
Pyelonephritis kidney infection
Cystitis bladder infection
Urinary Infection (UTI) most common cause of infection is Escherichia coli; UTIs due to Staphylococcus aureus typically occur secondary to blood-borne infections
UTI Symptoms and Treatment burning with urination and having to urinate frequently; antibiotics
Kidney Infection Symptoms fever and flank pain usually in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI
UTI Diagnosis Urinary analysis: looking for the presence of urinary nitrites, white blood cells (leukocytes), or leukocyte esterase; Urine culture
Urethritis a Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrheae infection may be the cause in men
Interstitial Cystitis chronic pain in the bladder
Prostatitis inflammation of the prostate
Kidney Failure known as renal failure or renal insufficiency; condition of impaired kidney function in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter metabolic wastes from the blood
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is an abrupt loss of kidney function that develops within 7 days
Prerenal decrease effective blood flow to the kidney and cause a decrease in the glomerular filtration rat (GFR)
Intrinsic directly damage the kidney itself
Postrenal disease states downstream of the kidney and most often occurs as a consequence of urinary tract obstruction
AKI Symptoms fatigue, loss of appetite, headache, nausea and vomiting, increased potassium level, fluid balance is frequently affected, though blood pressure can be high, low or normal
RIFLE Criteria for AKI Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Kidney Disease
Risk: AKI 1.5-fold increase in the serum creatinine, or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decrease by 25 percent, or urine output <0.5 mL/kg per hour for six hours
Injury: AKI Two-fold increase in the serum creatinine, or GFR decrease by 50 percent, or urine output <0.5 mL/kg per hour for 12 hours
Failure: AKI Three-fold increase in the serum creatinine, or GFR decrease by 75 percent, or urine output of <0.3 mL/kg per hour for 24 hours, or no urine output (anuria) for 12 hours
Loss: AKI Complete loss of kidney function (e.g., need for renal replacement therapy) for more than four weeks
End-Stage Kidney Disease: AKI Complete loss of kidney function (e.g., need for renal replacement therapy) for more than three months
AKI Treatment identification and treatment of the underlying cause; avoidance of nephrotoxins; monitoring kidney function; specific therapy; intravenous fluids
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic renal failure; chronic renal failure (CRF); has 5 stages
CKD Diagnosis Renal Ultrasonography; Retrograde Pyelography; CT, MRI, Renal Radionuclide Scanning
Hydronephrosis "water inside the kidney"; refers to distension and dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces
Nephrotic Syndrome a syndrome comprising signs of nephrosis, chiefly proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema
Peritoneal Dialysis Mechanical filtering process; Used to cleanse blood of waste products, draw off excess fluids, and regulate body chemistry when kidneys fail to function properly; Peritoneal membrane is used as filter
Continuous Cycling Peritoneal Dialysis (CCPD) Uses a machine that warms the solution and cycles it in and out of the peritoneal cavity at evenly spaced intervals at night while the patient sleeps; Process takes 8 to10 hours; Last exchange remains in abdomen during the day for approx 12 to 15 hours
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) Requires transfer set, connected to bag of dialysate solution; Dialysate solution remains in abdomen for approximately four hours after exchange; Process is repeated 3 to 5 times daily
Hemodialysis Removing excess fluids/toxins from blood by shunting pt’s blood from body into a dialysis machine for filtering and returning clean blood to bloodstream; Usually 3 treatments a wk, 3 to 4 hrs at a time; May be performed at dialysis center or at home
Arteriovenous Fistula (A-V Fistula) Access vessel created for use with hemodialysis
Created by: wallace263
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