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Senses

Sense Vocab Chapter 14

TermDefinition
Olfactory Nerve Receptors located at the roof of the nasal cavity, have long cilia and are coated with mucus, send impulses to the temporal lobe of the brain
Olfaction also known as olfactics, is the sense of smell.
Gustation sense of taste
Tongue covered in projections called papillae
Taste Buds found on the sides of papillae
Four Types of Taste Buds Bitter, Sour, Salty, Sweet
Levator Palpebrae Superioris Muscle opens the eye by raising the superior eyelid
Orbicularis Oculi facial muscle; closes the eye
Tears lubricate eyes; contain bacteriolytic lysozyme enzyme; contain salt and gamma globulin
Conjunctiva thin muscous membrane that lines the interior surface of the eyelid and the sclera
Sclera outermost layer of the eyeball, "white of the eye"
Medial Cantus superior and inferior eyelids meet here; just lateral to the nose
Lateral Canthus corner of each eye
Nerves that control eye muscles Abducens, Occulomotor, Trochlear
Lateral and Medial Rectus move the eye side-to-side
Superior and Inferior Rectus raise and lower the eye vertically
Inferior and Superior Oblique raise and lower the eye diagonally
Lacrimal Glands produce tears to moisten eyes and clear foreign material
Lacrimal Canals where tears are drained and empty into the nasal cavity
Cornea transparent, allows light to pass through, protects the front of the eye, can easily repair itself; focuses light onto the retina; covers iris and pupil
Choroid thin, dark layer of tissue that prevents light from scattering inside the eye, "red eye" in photos
Ciliary Body smooth muscle attached to lens
Iris a pigmented layer that can expand and contract to control the amount of light that enters the eye
Pupil transparent center of the iris
Retina back of eyeball; contains all the receptor neurons; receives visual info from cornea and lens, then sends it to optic nerve
Rods neurons that detect light
Cones neuron that detect color
Aqueous Humour between cornea and lens; fluid provides nutrients to the cells of the cornea and ensures the cornea is fully inflated
Vitreous Humour thicker gel found between lens and retina; the mass keeps the main body of the eye inflated and holds the retinal tissue in place
Pathway of Vision cornea, aqueous humour, pupil, lens and the vitreous humour to the retina
Fovea Centralis a small depression near the center of the retina, constituting the area of most acute vision
Colorblindness X-chromosome recessive trait that causes a lack of one or more type of cones; most common is red-green deficiency
Ishihara Test test to check for colorblindness
Equilibrium balance
Auricle external, visible, flexible part of outer ear
External Auditory Meatus part of outer ear, lined with hair and ceruminous glands
Tympanic Membrane vibrates in response to sound; "ear drum"; ends at the auditory canal
Pinna external structure of ear; collects sound waves, like a funnel
Auditory Canal is a narrow passageway through the temporal bone of the skull; lined with ceruminous glands that produce ear wax
Auditory Ossicles are three bones of middle ear (malleus, incus and stapes); transmit sounds from the air to the fluid-filled labyrinth (cochlea).
Eustachian Tube connects the middle ear chamber to the throat; equalizes pressure when yawning or chewing; "Popping" sensation in the ear
Cochlea the spiral cavity of the inner ear containing the organ of Corti, which produces nerve impulses in response to sound vibrations
Malleous a small bone in the middle ear that transmits vibrations of the eardrum to the incus
Stapes a small stirrup-shaped bone in the middle ear, transmitting vibrations from the incus to the inner ear; also called stirrup
Organ of Corti receptor organ for hearing; body's microphone; consisting of neuroepithelial hair cells
Tinnitis "ringing of the ears"; caused when the cilia are constantly stimulated
Endolymph the fluid in the membranous labyrinth of the ear
Lens structure inside your eye that changes shape as you focus on objects; along with the cornea it focuses light onto the retina
Optic Nerve receives visual info from the retina and cornea, then carries that info to brain
Nearsightedness (Myopia) common condition; faraway objects appear blurry; eye focuses light in front of retina instead onto it; eyeball is a little too long and cornea is too rounded
Farsightedness (Hyperopia) close-up vision is blurry; flat cornea, eyeball is shorter than normal; light is focused behind retina instead of on it
Presbyopia condition associated with aging of the eye; results in progressively worsening ability to focus clearly on close objects; hardening of the lens; eyestrain
Astigmatism a genetic defect; blurred vision due to the inability of eye to focus a point object into a sharp focused image on the retina
Corneal Astigmatism cornea is misshapen
Lenticular Astigmatism lens is misshapen
Astigmatism Symptoms blurred vision at all distances, impaired night vision, eyestrain, squinting, eye irritation, headaches
Astigmatism Treatment glasses or contacts; Orthokeratoloy; laser surgery
Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) causes inflammation and redness of the membranes inside the eyes; viruses, bacterial infections, allergies, or chemical agents are causes
Blepharitis (Eyelid Inflammation) eyelids become red, irritated and itchy and dandruff-like scales form on the eyelashes; caused by either bacteria or a skin condition, such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea.
Keratitis the cornea becomes inflamed; moderate to intense pain; causes: viral, bacterial, fungal, amoebic, parasitic
Scleritis a serious inflammatory disease that affects the white outer coating of the eye, (sclera); often contracted through association with other diseases of the body, such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis or rheumatoid arthritis
Uveitis inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea; requires urgent treatment
Uvea consists of the middle layer of pigmented vascular structures of the eye and includes the iris, ciliary body, and choroid
Cornea Abrasion a minor scratch on cornea; most heal quickly; if infected can also become a corneal ulcer
Glaucoma a group of eye diseases; result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss; most common is open-angle glaucoma; less common is closed-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma; Tonometry to diagnose
Intraocular Pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure inside the eye
Tonometry the procedure performed to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP), the fluid pressure inside the eye; test for risk from glaucoma.
Cataract a clouding of the lens in the eye leading to a decrease in vision; risks: DM, HTN, FH, Obesity, Smoking, etc
Subcapsular Cataract occurs at the back of the lens; people with diabetes or those taking high doses of steroids are at greater risk
Nuclear Cataract forms deep in the central zone (nucleus) of the lens; nuclear cataracts usually are associated with aging
Cortical Cataract chara. by white, wedge-like opacities that start in the periphery of the lens and work their way to the center in a spoke-like fashion; occurs in the lens cortex
Diabetic Retinopathy ocular manifestation of diabetes; result of damage to the small blood vessels and neurons of the retina; can eventually lead to blindness
Hypertensive Retinopathy damage to the retina and retinal circulation due to HTN; most patients have no symptoms; some may report blurred vision or headaches
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) leading cause of vision loss, blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field; caused by deterioration of the central portion of the retina; incurable; risks: Genetics, Race, Smoking
Conductive Hearing Loss when hearing loss is due to problems with the ear canal, ear drum, or middle ear and its little bones (the malleus, incus, and stapes)
Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SNHL) when hearing loss is due to problems of the inner ear, also known as nerve-related hearing loss
Mixed Hearing Loss refers to a combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. This means that there may be damage in the outer or middle ear and in the inner ear (cochlea) or auditory nerve
Conductive Hearing Loss Causes fluid in middle ear fro colds, ear infection, allergies, impacted earwax, Otosclerosis, benign tumors, perforated eardrum
Sensorineural Hearing Loss Causes head trauma, virus or disease, aging, Meniere's Disease, FH, Otosclerosis, exposure to loud noise, malformation of inner ear
Irreversible Sensorineural Hearing Loss the most common form of hearing loss, may be managed with hearing aids; can be surgically treated with cochlear implants
Otitis Externa (OE) "Swimmer's Ear", inflammation or infection of the external auditory canal; pain
Otitis Media (OM) group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear; most common cause is dysfunction of the Eustachian Tube
Acute Otitis Media (AOM) is a painful type of ear infection; occurs when the area behind the eardrum called the middle ear becomes inflamed and infected
Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) when the middle part of your ear fills with fluid
Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) middle ear inflammation of greater than two weeks that results in episodes of discharge from the ear
Mastoiditis it is an inflammation of the mucosal lining of the mastoid antrum and mastoid air cell system inside the mastoid process.
Mastoid Process the portion of the temporal bone of the skull that is behind the ear
Labyrinthitis also known as vestibular neuritis; inflammation of the inner ear; causes severe vertigo
Prochlorperazine commonly prescribed medication to help alleviate the symptoms of vertigo and nausea
Meniere's Disease disorder of the inner ear that is chara. by episodes of vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, and a fullness in the ear; last from 20 mins to few hours; no cure , just symptom management
Corneal Transplant surgical transplantation of a donor cornea (cadaver's) into the eye of a recipient, often under general anesthesia
Electronystagmography a group of tests used in evaluating the vestibule-ocular reflex
Electroretinogram (ERG) a recording of the changes in the electrical potential of the retina after the stimulation of light; useful in evaluating for retinal disease
Extracapsular Cataract Extraction surgical removal of the anterior segment of the lens capsule along with the lens, allowing for insertion of an intraocular lens implant
Fluorescein Staining used to visualize corneal abrasion
Gonioscopy process of viewing the anterior chamber angle of the eye for evaluation, management and classification of normal and abnormal angle structures
Iridectomy extraction of a small segment of the iris; used in treatment of closed-angle glaucoma
Keratoplasty transplantation of corneal tissue from one human eye to another to improve vision in the affected eye; also called corneal grafting
Laser in the Situ Keartomileusis (LASIK) form of laser vision correction for nearsightedness (myopia)
Opthalmoscopy examination of the external and internal structures the eye with an opthalmoscope
Pachymetry measurement of the thickness of the cornea
Phacoemulsification method of removing a lens by using ultrasound vibrations to split up the lens material into tiny particles that can be suctioned out of the eye
Photo-Refractive Keratectomy surgical procedure; few layers of corneal surface cells are shaved off by an excimer laser beam to flatten the cornea and reduce myopia
Retinal Photocoagulation surgical procedure; uses an argon laser to treat glaucoma, retinal detachment and diabetic retinopathy
Slit-Lamp Exam also known as Biomicroscopy; used to examine the eyelids, sclera, conjunctiva, iris, lens, cornea, fluids, membranes and retina
Trabeculectomy surgical excision of the portion of corneoscleral tissue to decrease the intraocular pressure in persons with glaucoma
Trabeculoplasty surgical creation of a permanent fistula used to drain fluid from the eye's anterior chamber
Vitrectomy surgical removal of the vitreous gel from the middle of the eye to repair retinal detachment
OD right eye (ocular dexter)
OS left eye (ocular sinister)
Audiometry process of measuring how well an individual hears various frequencies of sound waves
Nasal Endoscopy viewing the inside of the nose and sinuses with an endoscope
Otoscopy use of an otoscope to view and examine the tympanic membrane and various parts of the outer ear
Otoplasty Removal of a portion of ear cartilage to bring the pinna and auricle near the head; used in plastic surgery
Stapedectomy microsurgical removal of the stapes diseased by otosclerosis
Myringotomy with Tubes surgical procedure with insertion of a small ventilation tube introduced into the inferior segment of the tympanic membrane
Myringoplasty surgical repair of the tympanic membrane with a tissue graft after a spontaneous rupture that results in hearing loss; also called a tympanoplasty
Tympanoplasty surgical repair of the bones of the middle ear
EENT EARS, EYES, NOSE and THROAT
SOM serous otitis media
AOM acute otitis media
AD right ear (auris dextra)
AS left ear (auris sinstra)
Created by: wallace263