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an final


Synonyms for pelvic bone Hip bone; pelvis; os coxae; innominate bone
Parts of pelvic bone Ilium; ischium; pubis
Superior pelvic bone Ilium
Anterior pelvic bone Pubis
Posterior pubic bone Ischium
Where is here usually a fracture in the pelvic bone? Acetabulum (where the three parts meet)
Name of the joint at acetabulum Hip joint/ pelvo-femoral joint
Biggest muscle in the gluteal region; deep to deep fascia Gluteus maximus
Second layer of muscle in the gluteal region; above gluteus Maximus Gluteus medius
Most anterior to most posterior muscles of gluteal region Superior gemellus; obturator internus; inferior gemellus; obturator externus; quadratus femoris
Which nerve passes through all gluteal muscles Sciatic nerve
What is in the superior stump Superior gluteal neurovascular bundle
What makes up the superior gluteal neurovascular bundle Superior gluteal artery, nerve and vein
What is the top boundary of the piriformis Superior stump
What is the inferior boundary of the piriformis Inferior stump
What 5 structures are included in the inferior stump 1. Inferior gluteal artery; 2. Inferior gluteal nerve; 3. Inferior gluteal vein; 4. Sciatic nerve; 5. Pudendal neurovascular bundle (pudendal artery, vein and nerve)
What are the two sets of powerful ligaments in the gluteal region Sacrotuberus and sacrospinous ligaments
Which nerve comes out medial to the inferior stump ( but is not part of inferior stump) Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
What is the iliotibial tract? IT band; thickened fascia lata; lateral
Name the hamstrings (4 muscles) Semitendinosus; semimembranosus; long head of biceps femoris; posterior portion of adductor Magnus
All hamstrings are innervated by Tibial nerve
Which muscle is deep to the hamstrings Adductor magnus
What is the hole/opening in the back of the knee that punctures the adductor magnus called? Adductor hiatus
What goes through the adductor hiatus? Popliteal artery and vein
Where does the sciatic nerve split Before the popliteal fossa
What does the sciatic nerve split into Tibial and fibular nerves
Where does the tibial nerve continue to Posterior leg
What direction does the fibular nerve go Laterally
Where does the fibular nerve split At the head of the fibula
What does the fibular nerve split into Superficial and deep fibular nerves
What does the superficial fibular nerve supply Two muscles of the lateral leg (fibular is longus and brevis)
What does the deep fibular nerve supply All muscles of the anterior leg
When it gets to the anterior leg, the deep fibular nerve travels side by side with Anterior tibial artery (which creates a sheath)
Anterior tibial artery is a branch of the popliteal artery
The fibular nerve supplies muscle that (do what action) Extend the foot
If the fibular nerve is damaged, what may happen? Person can lose balance because nerve helps with angle of joints
What is the superolateral boundary of popliteal fossa? Biceps femoris
What is the supermedial boundary of popliteal fossa? Semimebranosus
What are the inferiolateral and inferiomedial boundaries of popliteal fossa? Lateral and medial heads of the gastrocnemius (respectively)
Superficial group of muscles of the posterior leg called Calf muscles
What muscles make up the calf muscle group (superficial posterior leg)? Gastrocnemius (2 heads); plantaris; soleus
What do the three calf muscles form when they fuse together? Calcaneal (Achilles) tendon; attached to heel/calcaneus of bone
Name the muscles (most medial to most lateral) of the deep group of posterior leg muscles Popliteal (above all the rest); flexor digitorum longus; tibialis posterior; flexor hallucis longus
What is the name of the shiny surface you see after cutting the fat of the plantar foot? Plantar aponeurosis
What is inflammation of the plantar aponeurosis called? Plantar fascitis
How many layers of muscles are in the plantar foot Four
Name the muscles of the first layer of the plantar foot Abductor hallucis; flexor digitorum brevis; abductor digiti minimi
Name the muscles of the second layer of the plantar foot Quadratus plantae; lumbricals
Name the muscles of the third layer of the plantar foot Flexor hallucis brevis; adductor hallucis(transverse and oblique); flexor digiti minimi brevis
Name the muscles of the fourth layer of the plantar foot Plantar interossei (3 muscles); dorsal interossei (4 muscles)
How does the tibial nerve travel after it enters the plantar foot? Travels on the medial side between two bones (medial malleolus and calcaneus)
What does the tibial nerve split into Medial plantar and lateral plantar nerves
Name the structures in the plantar foot from lateral to medial (2 tendons, one muscle, nerve, artery, vein) Tibialis posterior tendon; flexor digitorum longus; posterior tibial artery; posterior tibial veins; tibial nerve; flexor hallucis long is tendon
What are two nerves in the second layer of the plantar foot Medial and lateral plantar nerves
What main movements do the anterior thigh muscles produce Flexion of the hip; extension of the knee
What are the muscles of the anterior thigh Sartorius; tensor fascia lata; iliopsoas; quadriceps femoris
What muscles make up the quadriceps femoris Recurs femoris; vastus lateralis; vastus medialis; vastus intermedius
What do the quadriceps femoris muscles become Quadriceps tendon
What muscle group is on the medial aspect of the thigh Adductor group
Which muscles make up the adductor group Adductor longus; adductor brevis; adductor Magnus (anterior portion); gracious; obturator externus; pectineus
What is the most prominent bone of the anterior leg Tibia
Muscles of the anterior leg, medial to lateral Tibialis anterior; extensor hallucis longus; extensor digitorum longus; fibularis tertius
Where is the deep fibular nerve located? Deep to the tibialis anterior
What are the two intrinsic muscles of the dorsal foot Extensor digitorum brevis; extensor hallucis brevis
What are the extrinsic muscles of the dorsal foot Extensor digitorum longus; extensor hallucis longus; fibularis tertius
What is the superior boundary of the anterior thigh Anterior superior iliac spine and pubic tubercle, with inguinal ligament
What region/area is right above the anterior superior iliac spine Pelvic cavity
Which structure comes from the pelvic cavity and emerges in the anterior thigh Iliopsoas
What are the muscles of the anterior thigh from lateral to medial Fasciae latae; Tensor fasciae latae; Iliopsoas; Quadriceps femoris; Pectineus (half innervated by femoral nerve); Adductor group
Which nerve innervates the adductor group Obturator nerve
Near the pectineus what sheath do you see Femoral artery and vein
How does the femoral artery travel Comes from the pelvic cavity; punctures area by vastus medialis; emerges posteriorly as popliteal artery
The knee joint is made up of these two joints Femorotibial and femoropatellar joints
How does the quadriceps tendon run Inserts on the patella and continues to tibial tuberosity; sits on top of femoropatellar joint
What is the function of the patella? The patella needs to be there for extension; it provides a mechanical advantage for the quadriceps femoris because it increases the angle of extension (like a lever)
What does the femorotibial joint provide (action) Flex ion; it is a weight-bearing joint
What is the knee joint composed of (structures) Ligaments (external and internal); Bone (medial and lateral condyles which sit on the medial and lateral tibial plateaus; bursae
What is inflamed bursa of the knee called Housemaid's knee
What are the external collateral ligaments of the knee Medial and lateral collateral ligaments (aka fibular- lateral; tibial- medial); oblique popliteal ligament
What is the medial/tibial collateral ligament attached to The medial meniscus
Internal ligaments of the knee include ACL and PCL; short internal collateral ligament
What is the upper boundary of the femoral triangle Inguinal ligament
What is the medial boundary of the femoral triangle Adductor longus
What is the lateral boundary of the femoral triangle Sartorius
What is the clinical significance of the femoral triangle It contains neurovascular structures; a femoral hernia can occur here
How does the sciatic nerve travel It emerges in the gluteal region deep to the piriformis and traverses the gluteal region but does not innervated muscles there; then goes to posterior thigh, before it goes to the back of the knee it breaks off, then goes to the back of the foot
The sciatic nerve splits into what before it goes into the posterior leg Fibular nerve on the lateral side (superficial and deep)
The sciatic nerve continues as what nerve in the posterior leg Tibial nerve
When the tibial nerve goes to the back of the foot, how does it travel Goes between the calcaneus and medial malleolus; travels together with the TDAH group and supplies all the muscles of the toes
The short head of the biceps femoris is supplied by the fibular nerve
The hamstrings are supplied by the Tibial nerve
What two parts does the fibular nerve split into Superficial and deep
What does the superficial fibular nerve supply The two muscles of the lateral leg- fibularis longus and brevis
What does the deep part of the fibular nerve supply All muscles of the anterior leg
Which muscles do the superior and inferior gluteal nerves supply All gluteal muscles except the obturator and quadratus femoris
What is the main action of the anterior muscles of the leg Dorsiflex the foot
All of the following invert the foot except one: tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, fibularis tertius. Which one everts? Fibularis tertius
What are the posterior thigh blood vessels Popliteal artery and vein
From where do the posterior thigh blood vessels emerge Adductor hiatus
What are the branches of popliteal artery that supply the posterior and anterior leg Posterior tibial and anterior tibial artery (respectively)
How does the femoral artery travel It gives off a branch, continues to the anterior leg until it travels down and punctures area of vastus medialis and emerges posteriorly through the adductor Magnus (where the name changes to popliteal artery)
Which nerve is related to the action of the Achilles' tendon reflex Vestibular nerve
How does the medial collateral ligament travel? The MCL runs medial from the medial femoral epicondyle and it insets in the tibia by the tibial tuberosity
What is the function of the MCL? It prevents abduction of the knee
If the MCL is torn, name what will happen to the person Will have passive abnormal abduction of the extended leg
Where does the MCL lie in relation to the axes of flexion and extension? Posterior to the axes
Is the MCL taut (tight) or loose during extension? Taut; this limits leg extension
How does the lateral/fibular collateral ligament (LCL) run? Runs from lateral femoral epicondyle and inserts in the fibular head
Function of the LCL? Prevents adduction of the leg at the knee
A tear in the LCL is recognized as Passive abnormal adduction of the extended leg
How does the ACL anterior cruciate ligament run? Runs from anterior tibia; passed the intercondylar eminence on its way to the lateral femoral condyle within the intercondylar notch (where it inserts); ligament runs posterolateral
What is the relationship of the LCL and ACL in terms of location? They are perpendicular to one another
Which is shorter: ACL or PCL ACL slightly shorter
ACL function Helps to stabilize the knee joint; prevents posterior movement of the femur on the tibial plateau
Tear in ACL is called Anterior drawer sign; abnormal passive displacement of the tibia anteriorly
How does the posterior cruciate ligament travel Runs from the posterior tibia by the intercondylar eminence and inserts on the medial femoral condyle
Function of the PCL Key stabilizer of the knee; checks anterior movement of the femur on tibial plateau; prevents femur from sliding forward; prevents hyperflexion of the knee joint
Torn PCL referred to as Posterior drawer sign; abnormal passive posterior displacement of the tibia
The knee is made stable by Internal and external ligaments
Dynamic stability generally includes which muscle group Rotator cuff
What is a combined knee injury called Unhappy triad
What is damaged in an unhappy triad ACL is torn; medial meniscus damaged; medial collateral ligament torn
What is the labrum of acetabulum Fibrocartilage that lies within the acetabulum itself; creates a cushion for the head of the femur
What ligament runs across the space where the acetabular notch is Transverse acetabular ligament
Which ligament provides a pathway for an artery to travel to bring nutrients to the head and neck of the femur Ligamentum teres
Created by: MD5294



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