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Digestive System

Digestive System Vocab Chapter 12

TermDefinition
Ingestion the taking in of food
Peristalsis involuntary movements of intestinal muscles; wavelike movements that push contents forward
Digestion Physical and chemical breakdown of food into smaller molecules
Absorption movement of nutrients into the bloodstream
Defecation removal of indigestible waste
Gastrointestinal Tract Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small and Large Intestine
Accessory Organs Teeth, Tongue, Salivary Glands, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas
Mucosa mucous membrane attached to thin layer of visceral muscle
Submucosa loose connective tissue
Muscularis skeletal or smooth muscle
Adventitia serous membrane made of connective and epithelial tissue; also called visceral peritoneum or serosa
Mouth or Oral Cavity Functions Taste, Mechanical breakdown of food, Chemical digestion of carbohydrates, Amylase
Mouth or Oral Cavity Structure lined with mucous membrane, floor formed by tongue, formed by had and soft palate, formed by cheeks, opening guarded by lips
Three Pair of Salivary Glands empty secretions into the mouth; Parotid glands, Submandibular glands, Sublingual glands
Functions of Saliva dissolves chemicals in food so they can be detected by the taste buds, moistens food so that is can be swallowed; contains salivary amylase, a digestive enzyme
Functions of Tongue food manipulation, taste, speech
Structure of Tongue skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane, lingual frenulum, papillae, taste buds
Salivary Glands 3 glands: Parotid, Submandibular, Sublingual, 99.5% water, saliva, amylase, mucin to lubricate food, lysozyme to destroy bacteria, buffered by bicarbonates and phosphates
Mechanical Digestion physical process of breaking food into smaller pieces
Chemical Digestion when enzymes catalyze chemical reactions that lead to the breakdown of food molecules
Mastication chewing and grinding of food by the teeth
Teeth Structure: crown (covered in enamel), neck, root;
Dentin bonelike substance enclosing pulp cavity
Cementum covers root
Periodontal Ligament anchors tooth
Incisors blade-shaped teeth at the front of the mouth; clipping or cutting
Cuspids (canines) cone-shaped with a pointed tip; tearing or slashing
Bicuspids and Molars flattened tops; crushing, mashing or grinding
Wisdom Teeth additional set of molars that often develop in location where they cannot erupt
Vestigial Structures structure in an organism that has lost all or most of its original function in the course of evolution, such as human appendixes
Cavities or Caries occur when naturally-occurring overgrow due to the of presence of food particles, bacteria produces acid which dissolves the calcium phosphate enamel
Root Canal will clean out and dissolve all the tissue in the pulp cavity, leaving an antibiotic paste behind; tooth no longer has any living cells at this point
Pharynx common passageway for food and air
Pharynx Divisions Nasopharynx, Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx
Pharynx Functions begins swallowing (deglutition), forms food bolus, air passageways close
Bolus chewed, moistened ball of food
Uvula moves backwards, blocks the nasal cavity
Epiglottis folds down, blocks the trachea
Esophagus Function secrete mucus. transport food
Peristalsis smooth muscle contractions, pushs food
Lower Esophageal Sphincter controls passage of food into the stomach
Stomach Functions chemical and mechanical breakdown of food;
Stomach muscular organ made of 4 sections: Cardiac, Fundus, Body and Pyloric
Cardiac (stomach section) region closest to the esophagus and heart
Fundus (stomach section) superior bulge in stomach
Body (stomach section) middle section
Pyloric (stomach section) inferior region, closest to the small intestines
Rugue internal folds in the stomach, increase the surface area for digestion
Simple Columnar Epithelium innermost lining of the stomach
Cardiac Sphincter ring of smooth muscle intended to allow food into the stomach, but not out; exceptions include vomiting, heartburn, acid reflux
Gastrin a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric juice, and is secreted into the bloodstream by the stomach wall in response to the presence of food.
Gastrin causes the stomach glands to produce: Pepsinogen (breaks down proteins into amino acids), Mucus (to protect the stomach from being dissolved or digested), Hydrochloric Acid (lowers the PH)
Chyme partially digested food
Pyloric Sphincter stomach releases small amounts of chyme into the small intestine at a time through this
Small Intestine Function absorption of digested food
Small Intestine Divisions Duodenum: 10 inches, Jejunum: 8 feet, Ileum: 12 feet
Duodenum 1st section of small intestine; where most digestion occurs; digestive secretions from the pancreas and liver (gall bladder) are both sent here
The Pancreas releases... bicarbonate and enzymes into the duodenum: Bicarbonate, Pancreatic Amylase, Lipase, Nuclease, Trypsin
The Liver releases bile,..... which separates fats into smaller droplets to increase the rate of digestion by lipase
Jeunum-ileum absorption of the end-products of digestion occurs all along here
Villi are present in all cells along the intestines to increase the surface area for absorption; site of nutrient absorption; each villus is covered by microvilli
Hepatic Portal Vein substances are transported to the liver through this
Crypts of Lieberkuhn secrete digestive enzymes
Brunner's Glands secrete alkaline mucus
Plicae folds in the small intestine
Microvilli increase absortion area
Villus contains: arteriole, venule, capillary network and lacteal
Large Intestine reabsorption of water, manufacture and absorption of vitamins, formation and expulsion of feces; no digestive enzymes are present here
Anus controlled by internal and external sphincter
Rectum terminates at the anus
Cecum pouch-like area (cul-de-sac) containing the first part of the large intestine; joins the ileum, the last segment of the small intestine; appendix is attached here
Colon Ascending, Transverse, Descending
Haustrae are the small pouches caused by sacculation, which give the colon its segmented appearance.
Mass Peristalsis Forceful peristaltic movements of short duration in which contents are moved from one section of the colon to another, occurring three or four times daily
Haustral Churining is contraction of the colon resulting in mixing and dividing the contents into smaller pieces in the haustra
Large Intestine Contracts.... 3 to 12 contractions per minute (average 3 to 4)
Feces semisolid mass originating from chyme; contain water, inorganic salts, epithelial cells, Escherichia coli
Pancreas a gland, situated near the stomach, that secretes a digestive fluid into the intestine through one or more ducts and also secretes the hormone insulin
Pancreatic Acinar Acinar cells are the exocrine (exo=outward) cells of the pancreas that produce and transport enzymes that are passed into the duodenum where they assist in the digestion of food
Islets of Langerhans insulin(beta cell) and glucagon(alpha cell)
Insulin stimulates the absorption of glucose form blood and production of glycogen for storage
Glucagon stimulates the breakdown of glycogen into glucose, raising blood sugar
Liver makes bile, detoxifies any poisons absorbed by the digestive tract
Liver Functions produces heparin, prothrombin, thrombin; phagocytosis of bacteria; stores excess carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins; converts toxins into less harmful substances; produces bile salts
Bile greenish, yellow, thick, sticky fluid that consists of bile salts, electrolytes, bile pigments, cholesterol and other lipids
Bile Functions aid in digestion by absorbing cholesterol, other fats and fat-soluble vitamins; eliminate waste products (mainly hemoglobin)
Bilirubin a reddish-yellow water insoluble pigment occurring especially in bile and blood and causing jaundice if accumulated in excess
Biliary Tract Bile flows out of the liver through the left and right hepatic ducts => join to form the common hepatic duct => joins with cystic duct (connected to the gallbladder) to form the common bile duct
Common Bile Duct enters the small intestine at the sphincter of Oddi (a ring-shaped muscle), located a few inches below the stomach.
Gallbladder pear-shaped sac; located in depression on surface of liver; stores and concentrates bile until needed; enters duodenum through common bile duct
Appendix is a small dead-end tube connected at the beginning of the ascending colon; believed to be a vestigial structure
Mesentary holds intestines together
Greater and Lesser Omentum holds stomach in place with other abdominal organs
Peritoneum serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera
Retroperitoneal Space Anatomical space in abdominal cavity behind the parietal peritoneum; Superior boundary:12th thoracic vertebra and 12th rib; Inferior boundary: sacrum and iliac crest  
Retroperitoneal Viscera Duodenum, Pancreas, Colon, part of Esophagus and Rectum, Suprarenal Glands, Aorta/IVC, Ureters, Kidneys
Thrush is a condition in which the fungus Candida albicans accumulates on the lining of your mouth; it's more likely to occur in babies, the elderly, and in people with suppressed immune systems or certain health conditions, or those who take certain medications
Achalasia is an esophageal motility disorder involving the smooth muscle layer of the esophagus and LES; chara by incomplete LES relaxation, increased LES tone, and lack of peristalsis of the esophagus in the absence of other explanations like cancer or fibrosis
Lower Esophageal Sphincter LES
Esophageal Varices are extremely dilated sub-mucosal veins in the lower third of the esophagus. They are most often a consequence of portal hypertension, commonly due to cirrhosis; variceal ligation, banding or sclerotherapy
Barrett's Esophagus metaplasia of esophageal lining (displacement with intestinal columnar epithelium); Usually from GERD, males over 50; Common precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma
Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) known as a peptic ulcer or stomach ulcer, is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine, or occasionally the lower esophagus
Peptic Ulcer Disease Symptoms duodenal ulcer are waking at night with upper abdominal pain or upper abdominal pain that improves with eating; With a gastric ulcer the pain may worsen with eating
Peptic Ulcer Disease Causes the bacteria Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
Peptic Ulcer Disease Complications Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Perforation, Penetration, Gastric Outlet Obstruction, Cancer
Appendicitis inflammation of the appendix, caused by a blockage of the hollow portion of the appendix, most commonly by a calcified "stone" made of feces; appendectomy
Celiac Disease is an autoimmune disorder affecting primarily the small intestine that occurs in people who are genetically predisposed; caused by a reaction to gluten
Celiac Disease Symptoms pale, loose, and greasy stool (steatorrhoea) and weight loss or failure to gain weight
Celiac Disease Diagnosis and Treatment Diagnosis is typically made by a combination of blood antibody tests and intestinal biopsies; The only known effective treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet
Crohn's Disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus; is caused by a combination of environmental, immune and bacterial factors in genetically susceptible individuals
Crohn's Disease Symptoms and Treatment abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), fever, and weight loss; no cure, treat symptoms only
Diverticulosis condition of having diverticula in the colon that are not inflamed. These are outpockets of the colonic mucosa and submucosa through weaknesses of muscle layers in the colon wall. They typically cause no symptoms.
Hirschsprung's Disease birth defect that affects the nerve cells in the large intestine. These nerve cells control the muscles that normally push food and waste through the large intestine; treatment consists of removal of abnormal section of the colon followed by reanastomosis
Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum; cause unknown
Ulcerative Colitis Symptoms abdominal pain and diarrhea mixed with blood, weight loss, fever, anemia
Ulcerative Colitis Treatment Dietary changes may improve symptoms, a number of medications are used to treat symptoms and bring about and maintain remission, removal of the colon and rectum can cure the disease
Volvulus is when a loop of intestine twists around itself and the mesentery that supports it, resulting in a bowel obstruction
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver slowly deteriorates and is unable to function normally due to chronic, or long lasting, injury. Scar tissue replaces healthy liver tissue and partially blocks the flow of blood through the liver.
Cirrhosis Causes Chronic alcohol abuse, Chronic viral hepatitis (B and C), Fat accumulating in the liver
Cirrhosis Complications Portal Hypertension, Splenomegaly, Bleeding, Hepatic Encephalopathy, Increase Risk of Liver Cancer
Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE) a spectrum of potentially reversible neuropsychiatric abnormalities seen in patients with liver dysfunction after exclusion of unrelated neurologic and/or metabolic abnormalities.
Cholelithiasis Gallstone disease refers to the condition where gallstones are either in the gallbladder or common bile duct
Choledocholithiasis gallstones migrate into the ducts of the biliary tract; frequently associated with obstruction of the biliary tree, which in turn can lead to acute ascending cholangitis; cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal)
Hepatitis Acute or chronic inflammation of the liver due to viral, bacteria infection, or drugs, alcohol, toxins or parasites
Hepatitis A fecal-oral route, or poor hygiene, contaminated water or shellfish
Hepatitis B blood and blood fluid of infected person, possible cirrhosis
Hepatitis C IV route in blood transfusion, needle sharing, possible cirrhosis, curable now
Pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas; caused by gallstones and heavy alcohol use
Pancreatitis Symptoms severe upper abdominal or left upper quadrant burning pain radiating to the back, nausea, and vomiting that is worse with eating
Pancreatitis Treatment intravenous fluids; pain medication; antibiotics; typically no eating or drinking is allowed (NPO); a tube may be placed into the stomach(NG tube)
Hemorrhoids The veins around your anus tend to stretch under pressure and may bulge or swell. Swollen veins (hemorrhoids) can develop from increased pressure in the lower rectum
Hemorrhoids Symptoms Painless bleeding during bowel movements; Itching or irritation in the anal region; Pain or discomfort; Swelling around the anus; A lump near anus, which may be sensitive or painful (may be a thrombosed hemorrhoid
Internal Hemorrhoids These lie inside the rectum. Occasionally, straining can push an internal hemorrhoid through the anal opening. This is known as a protruding or prolapsed hemorrhoid
Thrombosed Hemorrhoids Sometimes blood may pool in an external hemorrhoid and form a clot (thrombus) that can result in severe pain, swelling, inflammation and a hard lump near the anus.
Polyps, Colorectal A colon polyp is a small clump of cells that forms on the lining of the colon; most are harmless; some develop into colon cancer
Colorectal Cancer Signs worsening constipation, blood in the stool, decrease in stool caliber (thickness), loss of appetite, loss of weight, and nausea or vomiting in someone over 50 years old
Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Diagnosis: biopsy( colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy); Treatments used for colorectal cancer may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy
Organs that are not covered by the peritoneum... Retroperitoneal
Parts of the Small Intestine Duodenum, Ileum and Jejunum
The portion of the large intestine that extends in a horizontal direction... Transverse Colon
A sac-like organ that is attached to the undersurface of the liver, stores and concentrates bile... Gallbladder
What two biliary ducts merge to form the common bile duct? The left and right hepatic ducts
Created by: wallace263