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QuestionAnswer
Special senses receptor types chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors
Two types of papillae on tongue fungiform and circumvallate
Fungiform papilla just for gripping food, no receptors
Circumvallate papilla contains taste buds
Taste sensations sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami
Flavor combination of taste, smell, texture
Tear drainage pathway lacrimal canaliculi, lactrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, nasal cavity
Strabismus cross eyed, caused by eye muscle problems
Amblyopia reduced vision in the weaker lazy eye
Fibrous tunic/what made of outer layer of eye; sclera and cornea, dense irregular CT
Sclera is covered by what (and what is it made of) conjunctiva, stratified columnar w/ goblet cells
Fibrous tunic is an extension of what dura mater
Vascular tunic choroid, iris, ciliary body
Ciliary body controls shape of lens
Choroid vascular, dark surface that absorbs excess light
What structure removes aqueous humor scleral venous sinus
What produces aqueous humor ciliary processes of ciliary body
Sensory tunic retina w/ two layers, pigmented and neural
Pigmented layer of retina melanin granules to absorb light and nourish neural layer
Neural layer of retina photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells
Photoreceptors activate what (which then activates what) bipolar, ganglion
Optic disk where axons of ganglion cells leave the eye
Macula lutea region at posterior pole of eye, mostly cones
Fovea centralis (in macula lutea) all cones, where the image focuses
Lens is made of what simple cuboidal epithelium along anterior surface, concentric layers of fibers
Myopic nearsighted, eye too long
Hyperopic farsighted, eye too short
Astigmatism abnormal shaped cornea
What is aqueous humor made of blood filtrate
Glaucoma aqueous humor is drained slower than it is produced
What is vitreous humor made of 98% water w/ some collagen
Detached retina tear in retina allow vitreous humor between pigmented and neural layers of retina
What is found in external acoustic meatus stratified squamous epithelium, hair cells, ceruminous glands (wax)
What types of tissue are on either side of eardrum fibrous CT outside, mucous membrane inside
What tube allows pressure exchange in ear pharyngotympanic tube
Pathway of bone vibration in ear malleus, incus, stapes
What 2 muscles are found in the ear tensor tympani, stapedius
Tensor tympani attaches to what malleus
Stapedius attaches to what stapes
Oval window where vibrations from stapes pass to fluid of inner ear
Round window where vibrations leave inner ear after activating receptors
What fluid in bony labyrinth perilymph
Body labyrinth cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals
What fluid in membranous labyrinth endolymph
Membranous labyrinth cochlear duct, utricle, saccule, semicircular ducts
5 types of cells in spiral organ of corti hair cells (mechanoreceptor), hairs/stereocilia (create electrical impulse), tectorial membrane (collagen around stereocilia), fibers of cochlear nerve, supporting cells
utricle responds to acceleration in horizontal direction
saccule responds to vertical movements
what type of fluid fills utricle and saccule endolymph
macula region of sensory epitheluum
vertigo alcohol, infection, otoliths dislodged & can affect crista ampullaris
vomeronasal organ pheromones
what is lymph called when it's not in the lymphatic system yet interstitial fluid
layers of lymph vessels tunica intima (epithelium), tunica media (SM), tunica externa (CT)
elephantiasis lymphedema caused by a parasite
afferent lymphatic vessels drain into node
efferent lymphatic vessels drain away from node
lymph node general structure cortex and medulla
right lymphatic duct drains right side
thoracic duct drains most of body, all of left and bottom of right
thymus location where some immature lymphocytes gain immunocompetence
white pulp (spleen) immune/lymphocytes to remove blood borne antigens
red pulp (spleen) removal of old and defective blood cells
3 kidney functions filtration, resorption, secretion
site of all filtration renal corpuscle
name of cells in visceral layer of glomerular capsule podocytes
proximal convoluted tubule cell type simple cuboidal w/ microvilli
proximal convoluted tubule function resorption and secretion
descending loop of henle cell type simple squamous
descending loop of henle function resorption of WATER
ascending loop of henle cell type simple cuboidal
ascending loop of henle function resorption and secretion
distal convoluted tubule cell type simple cuboidal
distal convoluted tubule function resorption and secretion
collecting duct cell type simple cuboidal
collecting duct function resorption and secretion
which process that takes place between a nephron and capillary would concentrate urine within the nephron resorption
what structure surrounds cortical nephrons/function peritubular capillaries/resorption
what structure surrounds loop of henle/function vasa recta/resorbing water and concentrating urine
what type of epithelium in ureter transitional
female vs. male urethra 3-4cm vs 20cm
what type of epithelium is external urethral orifice stratified squamous
dartos muscle smooth muscle that wrinkles scrotal skin to increase thickness for warmth
cremaster muscle elevates testes for warmth
two things deep to cremaster muscle tunica vaginalis (serous membrane), tunica albuginea (fibrous capsule around testes)
sperm stem cells spermatogonium
head of epididymis immotile sperm
tail of epididymis storage (broken down after several months)
seminal vesicle 60% of seminal fluid, prostaglandins and fructose
ejaculatory duct seminal vesicle + vas deferens
prostate 30% of seminal fluid, clotting factor/motility
balbourethral gland basic fluid
corpus cavernosum function paired/primary erectile bodies
corpus spongiosum function keep urethra open during ejaculation
labia majora is homologous to scrotum
labina minora is homologous to corpus spongiosum
clitoris is homologous to corpus cavernosum
parts of mammary glands lactiferous duct, lobule w/ alveoli, nipple, adipose tissue
follicular phase 1-14
luteal phase 14-28
corpus luteum endocrine structure
3 layers of uterine wall perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium
Light entering the retina passes the cells in which order ganglion, bipolar, rods/cones
Cells of the retina are activated in what order? Cones/rods, bipolar, ganglion
What is the pathway of sound between the stapes and the sensory receptors of the cochlea? Oval window; scala vestibule; cochlear duct (scala media); basilar membrane; hair cell
What is the pathway of sound through fluids starting at the oval window through to dissipation of the sound waves at the round window? Perilymph of scala vestibule; endolymph of cochlear duct; perilymph of scala tympani
The spiral organ of Corti is involved in which function(s)? hearing
The semicircular canal is involved in which function(s)? balance
The maculae is involved in which function(s)? balance
The cochlear duct is involved in which function(s)? hearing
The cristae ampullares are involved in which function(s)? balance
The semicircular canal is involved in which function(s)? balance
The endolymph is involved in which function(s)? balance and hearing
The perilymph is involved in which function(s)? balance and hearing
Where does drainage of fluid/material occur from blood to lymph? near most capillary beds
Where does drainage of fluid/material occur from lymph to blood? in neck veins
Desert animals need to concentrate urine. What structural changes in the kidney would be associated with this? longer loop of henle and more juxtamedullary nephrons
List the order in which a sperm would pass through the following structures after leaving the seminiferous tubule Rete testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, prostatic urethra, spongy urethra
3 types of joints fibrous, cartilagenous, synovial
type of epithelium in nasopharynx pseudostratified ciliated columnar
type of epithelium in oropharynx stratified squamous
type of epithelium in laryngopharynx stratified squamous
What is the basilar membrane? a membrane that separates the scala media from the scala tympani, and vibrates when a sound wave hits it
where is interstitial fluid able to enter the lymphatic vessels? through flaps between the simple squamous cells of the lymphatic capillaries
Which structure allows for voluntary control of the release of urine from the urinary bladder? External urethral sphincter
What type of tissue is the detrusor layer of the urinary bladder? Smooth muscle
What happens within a sinusoid of a liver lobule? Nutrient rich blood from a venule and oxygen rich blood from an arteriole mix
Created by: melaniebeale