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Respiratory System

Respiratory System Vocab Chapter 11

TermDefinition
Respiratory System Organs nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
Respiration exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between atmosphere, blood and cells
Respiratory Functions carbon dioxide out and oxygen in, protects the surface of the lungs, trachea from dehydration, temp changes and pathogens; produces sounds needed for speech, aids the sense of smell
Membranes and Cavities Thoracic and Abdominal Cavities; separated by the diaphragm; the walls are covered by parietal pleura; the organs' surface is covered with visceral pleura
Thoracic Cavity most of the respiratory organs are located here; left and right lung and surrounding pleura on each side of cavity; contains the mediastinum
Mediastinum the area between the lungs in the chest cavity that contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus and bronchi
Visceral Pleura covers the surface of organs, such as the lungs; portion of the pleura that is closest to the internal organs
Parietal Pleura covers the walls of the respiratory cavities; portion of the pleura that is closest to the ribs
External Nares openings into the nose; choana(e): link from external nares to nasopharynx
Internal Nares connect nose and pharynx; functions: warm and moisturize air, smell, speech tone
Olfactory Receptors located in the Superior Meatus
Turbinate Bones Superior, Middle and Inferior Meatus
The nasal and oral cavity are separated by the bony hard palate and the soft palate made of cartilage
Nasal Cavity is divided at the midline by nasal septum; made up of ethmoid, vomer bone and septal cartilage
Sinuses empty spaces in the nasal cavity, lighten the skull, act as resonance chamber for speech, produce mucus
Paranasal Sinuses Interosseous spaces named after the bones that create them; maxillary, frontal, sphenoid and ethmoid; assist in respiration by warming and moistening inspired air
Nasal Chonchae curled bone shelves that force air flow over the largest surface area of cilia possible
Nasophyarynx where air exits the nasal cavity; internal nares and Eustachian tubes
Pharynx passageway for food, air and resonating chamber for speech; divisions: nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx
Oropharynx connection to mouth (fauces)
Laryngopharynx connects with esophagus and larynx
Larynx voice box; connects the pharynx with the trachea; directly below the epiglottis
Thyroid Cartilage largest supporting cartilage for larynx; Adam's apple
Epiglottis prevents food and liquids from entering trachea
Cricoid connects with first tracheal ring
Arytenoid attach to vocal cords and laryngeal muscles
Corniculate and Cuneiform connect epiglottis to arytenoid cartilage
Glottis opening over true vocal cords; sound-producing apparatus of the larynx; consisting of 2 vocal folds and the intervening space
Trachea windpipe; connects the larynx with the bronchi; lined with C-shaped rings of cartilage for support; lined with pseudo-stratified epithelium with cilia and goblet cells; smooth muscle and connective tissue
Cilia hairlike projections on the mucous membranes, sweep dirt and foreign material toward the throat for elimination
Bronchi are formed by the division of the trachea; continue to subdivide: primary bronchi to secondary bronchi to tertiary bronchi to bronchioles
Lung along with heart occupies most of thoracic cavity; apex of lung is near the clavicle, base rests on diaphragm; each lung is divided into lobes; RL has 3 lobes; LL has 2 lobes
Pleural Membrane encloses and protects lungs; Parietal Pleura (outer), Visceral Pleura (inner), Pleural Cavity (btwn pleura, prevents friction)
Pleurisy inflammation of parietal pleura
Alveoli small air-filled sacs where bronchioles end; lined with a layer of simple squamous epithelium, followed by capillaries
External Respiration (breathing) exchange gases between lungs and blood
Internal Respiration exchange of gases between blood and body cells
Intercostal Nerves arise from T1-T11 spinal nerve roots to innervate internal and external intercostal muscles
Phrenic Nerve bilateral mixed nerve that arises primarily from C3-C5; "keeps diaphragm alive
Cellular Respiration = respiration proper
Croup a common in young children; tends to occur in fall and winter; barking cough; raspy, hoarse voice; a harsh, crowing noise when breathing in
Laryngitis inflammation of voice box (larynx) from overuse, irritation or infection; dysphonia (hoarseness), aphonia, cough, difficulty swallowing
Pertussis (whooping cough) highly contagious respiratory disease, caused by bacterium Bordetella pertussis; known for uncontrollable, violent coughing; can be deadly in less than 1 year of age
Pharyngitis usually caused by virus, also can be bacteria infection, strep throat-group A streptococcus, sore throat is typical
Sinusitis inflammation of the sinuses, thick nasal mucus, plugged nose and pain in the face, can be caused by infection, allergies, air pollution or structural problems in the nose; treatment includes abx, decongestants, analgesics
Tonsillitis inflammation of tonsils, rapid onset, type of pharyngitis; sore throat, fever, enlarged tonsils, trouble swallowing, large lymph nodes; peritonsillar abscess; tonsillectomy
Restrictive Lung Disease inhale; restrict lung expansion, resulting in decreased lung volume, an increased work of breathing and inadequate ventilation and/or oxygenation
Obstructive Lung Disease exhale; category of respiratory disease characterized by airway obstruction; asthma, bronchiectasis, bronchitis and COPD
Asthma severe attack of difficult breathing accompanied by wheezing caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of the mucous membrane
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, causes serious long-term disability and early death, main cause is smoking
COPD Symptoms chronic cough, SOB, frequent respiratory infections, blueness of lips or fingernails beds, fatigue, producing a lot of mucus, wheezing
Exacerbation an acute change in a patient's baseline dyspnea, cough, or sputum that is beyond normal variability and that is sufficient to warrant a change in therapy
COPD Diagnosis Spirometry, CXR, Arterial Blood Gas (ABG)
Spirometry blow air into a mouthpiece and tubing attached to a small machine.
CXR hyperinflation
Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) measures the oxygen level in your blood
COPD Treatment oxygen and ventilation, Bronchodilators: inhalers, Corticosteroids, Antibiotics
Emphysema involves gradual damage of lung tissue, specifically thinning and destruction of the alveoli or air sacs
Chronic Bronchitis inflammation and swelling of the lining of the airways, leading to narrowing and obstruction
Empyema known as pyothorax or purulent pleuritis, is an accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
Lung Abscess type of liquefactive necrosis of the lung tissue and formation of cavities containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection; pus filled cavity often caused by aspiration
Bronchiectasis permanent enlargement of bronchus or bronchi, result of chronic inflammation compounded by an inability to clear mucoid secretions; Cystic Fibrosis is a cause in up to half of cases; CT to confirm diagnosis
Bronchiectasis Symptoms and Treatment frequent bronchial infections and breathlessness; controlling infections and bronchial secretions, relieving airway obstructions, removal of affected portions of lung
Bronchogenic carcinomas lung cancer; small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and non-small lung cancers (NSCLC)
Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) comprises about 10%-15% of lung cancers; most aggressive and rapidly growing; strongly related to smoking
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) most common lung cancer; about 85% of all cases; 3 main types: Adenocarcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Large Cell Carcinoma
Adenocarcinomas most common type of NSCLC, comprise up to 40%, seen in non-smokers--especially women, better prognosis than other types
Squamous Cell Carcinomas account for 25% - 30%, arise most frequently in the central chest area in the bronchi
Large Cell Carcinomas sometimes referred to as undifferentiated carcinomas, least common type of NSCLC, accounts for 10%-15%, high tendency to spread to the lymph nodes and distant sites
Pneumonia inflammation of the lungs caused primarily by bacteria, viruses and chemical irritants
Pneumonia Signs and Symptoms productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, trouble breathing
Bacterial Pneumonia most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with Streptococcus pneumonia isolated in nearly 50% of cases
Viral Pneumonia adults, viruses account for approx. a third and in kids for about 15% of cases, commonly implicated agents include rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, influenza virus, RSV, adenovirus and parinfluenza
Pleural Effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs; can impair breathing by limiting the expansion of the lungs
Pneumothorax accumulation of air in the pleural space and commonly called a "collapsed lung"
Pulmonary Edema fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs; leads to impaired gas exchange and may cause respiratory failure, can lead to fatal respiratory distress or cardiac arrest due to hypoxia
Pulmonary Edema Causes Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema and NonCardiogenic Pulmonary Edema
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema CHF and Hypertensive crisis
Noncardiogenic Pulmonary Edema an injury to the lung parenchyma or vasculature of the lung; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
Pulmonary Edema Treatment Improve respiratory function, treat underlying cause, avoid further damage to lung
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) medical condition occurring in critically ill patients; widespread inflammation in the lungs; triggered by trauma, pneumonia and sepsis
Pulmonary Embolism blockage of the artery in the lungs by a thrombus that has traveled from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream; chest pain, SOB, coughing up blood
Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis and Treatment Blood test, Doppler for leg DVT, CT; anticoagulation, insertion of IVC filter
Cor Pulmonale condition that causes the right side of the heart to fail; long-term high blood pressure in the arteries of the lung and right ventricle can lead to this
Bronchoscopy examination of the interior of the bronchi using a lighted, flexible tube known as a bronchoscope (or endoscope)
Chest X-Ray use of high energy electromagnetic waves passing through the body onto a photographic film to produce a picture of the internal structures of the body for diagnosis and therapy
Laryngoscopy examination of the interior of the larynx using a lighted, flexible tube known as a laryngoscope (or endoscope)
Nuclear Perfusion Lung Scan the visual imaging of the distribution of ventilation or blood flow in the lungs by scanning the lungs after the patient has been injected with or has inhaled radioactive material
Sputum Specimen specimen of material expectorated from the mouth
Thoracentesis use of needle to collect pleural fluid for laboratory analysis or to remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space
Tonsillectomy surgical removal of the palatine tonsils
Created by: wallace263