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A&P 1

Chapters 1-6 Midterm questions

QuestionAnswer
Which of the following groups of elements account for more than 95% of the human body by weight? Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
If the concentration of glucose in the water outside of a cell is higher than the concentration inside, water will leave the cell by osmosis.
Nucleic acids are composed of building blocks called nucleotides.
Chemistry is important to the study of physiology because all of the above. 1-the foods that we eat are chemicals. 2-body functions depend on cellular functions that reflect chemical changes. 3-chemical reactions enable our bodies to extract energy from nutrients.
Lipids all of the above. 1-are insoluble in water. 2-include phospholipids, cholesterol, and fats. 3-contain C, H, and O, but with proportionately less oxygen than in carbohydrates.
Cells lose water when placed in a __________ solution. hypertonic
The elbow is distal to the wrist. False
Which of the choices includes all acids? Vinegar, grapes, tomatoes, and coffee
Stages of the cell cycle unfold in the following order: interphase, mitosis, cytoplasmic division, differentiation
The secondary structure of a protein molecule is the result of hydrogen bonds.
In negative feedback mechanisms changes away from the normal state stimulate changes in the opposite direction.
The symbol Na+ represents a sodium atom that has lost an electron. True
Cilia and flagella extend from certain cells, enabling them to move. True
Which of the following correctly describes the structural organization of the cell membrane? A bilayer of phospholipid molecules in which protein molecules are embedded and can move
What characteristic do simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion share? Both move a substance from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration without cellular energy.
During interphase, a cell rests. False
Which of the following is not true of organelles? They are only in cells of humans.
Which of the following groups of compounds is hydrophobic? Lipids
Microfilaments and microtubules are part of the cytoskeleton. True
The activities of an anatomist consist of ______, whereas those of a physiologist consist of _____. observing body parts; studying functions of body parts
Which of the following substances is an element? Iron
Saturated fats _______ than unsaturated fats. have more single carbon-carbon bonds
A selectively permeable membrane allows some substances to pass through and excludes others.
Which of the following transport processes does not require expenditure of cellular energy? Facilitated diffusion
When the body is placed in the anatomical position, which of the following is not true? The palms are facing backward.
A cell that can divide to give rise to any cell type is totipotent.
Signs of aging at the cellular level are impaired cell division and the ability to break down and recycle worn cell parts.
Metabolism is defined as _____. all the chemical reactions occurring in an organism that support life
The three major parts of a cell are the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane.
The number of protons in an atom of an element always equals its atomic weight. False
The relationship of osmotic pressure and the number of solute particles in a solution is the greater the number of solute particles, the greater the osmotic pressure.
The atoms of the isotopes of a particular element vary in the number of Neutrons
Which of the following organs is in the abdominopelvic cavity? The liver
A decomposition reaction can be symbolized by AB → A + B.
The oral, nasal, orbital, and middle ear cavities are in the dorsal cavity. False
Which of the following lists best illustrates the idea of increasing levels of complexity? Organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
An electrolyte ionizes in water. True
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum does not. False
A water solution that contains equal numbers of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions is Neutral
Homeostasis is the tendency of the body to maintain a stable internal environment.
Which of the following is an example of catabolism? The breakdown of glucose in the cytoplasm and mitochondria.
A cofactor is ______ and examples are _____. a necessary part of some enzymes; copper, iron, and zinc
Dehydration synthesis reactions _____, whereas hydrolysis reactions _____. lose H2O to form bonds; use H2O to break bonds
Catabolism builds up molecules and anabolism breaks down molecules. False
An active site of an enzyme is the part of an enzyme that combines with a substrate.
A cell may contain hundreds of different types of enzymes. True True
Which choice lists structures in order of increasing size? nitrogenous base - nucleotide - gene - chromosome - genome
A glucose molecule is broken down into two pyruvic acid molecules in Glycolysis
If one strand of DNA has the sequence TCAGGCTATTCCCG, then the complementary sequence of the other strand is AGTCCGATAAGGGC.
An ATP molecule consists of an adenine, a ribose, and three phosphates. True
An enzyme is a molecule, usually a protein, that speeds the rate of a biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy
ATP is important to cellular processes because it provides energy for cellular work when the terminal, high-energy bond is broken.
The electron transport chain is a series of enzyme complexes that pass electrons, releasing energy that is used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP on the inner mitochondrial membrane. True
Which of the following is not true regarding RNA? It is double-stranded.
Which of the following substances increases in abundance during cellular respiration? ATP
"Metabolism" refers to all of the chemical reactions in a cell.
A serous membrane consists of a layer of simple squamous epithelium and a thin layer of areolar tissue.
Tissues are groups of cells that have a common overall function, yet are distinctive in their characteristic cell types and the molecules that the cells produce. True
Adipose tissue is a form of connective tissue.
The tissue that forms the outermost layer of the skin is a type of connective tissue. False
A _______ membrane lines tubes and cavities that open to the outside of the body. Mucous
A skeletal muscle fiber contains many nuclei. True
The type of intercellular junction that forms tubular channels is a gap junction.
Bone cells form concentric circles around longitudinal tubes called central canals.
Which of the following is not one of the four basic types of body tissues? Eye tissue
Tendons and ligaments are composed primarily of dense regular connective tissue.
Blood is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets suspended in a fluid extracellular matrix called plasma. True
The type of intercellular junction that consists of fused membranes is a(an) tight junction
Involuntary muscle tissues are smooth muscle tissue and cardiac muscle tissue.
Smooth muscle is found in the wall of the stomach and intestine.
Histology is the study of the history of anatomy and physiology. False
Which of the following characteristics is used to name tissue types? Organization of cells
The tissue through which gases are exchanged between the blood and the air in the lungs is simple squamous epithelium.
A (An) ______ gland does not branch before reaching the glandular cells or secretory part. simple
Muscle cells with more than one nucleus are skeletal muscle cells only.
What determines the color of skin? The amount of melanin that melanocytes produce.
Inflammation makes skin red, swollen and painful to touch.
Blood vessels in the ___________ supply epidermal cells with nutrients. Dermis
Which person is at highest risk of developing a cutaneous carcinoma? a light-complexioned man age 52 who goes to the beach on summer weekends and does not use sunblock because he likes to be tan.
Which of the following happens first after a scab forms? fibroblasts from the wound edge form new collagenous fibers.
Milk and ear wax are secreted from modified sweat glands.
The arrector pili muscle is attached to a hair follicle.
The hardness of a nail comes from keratin.
Nerve fibers scattered throughout the dermis are associated with muscles, glands, and sensory receptors.
Injections that are administered into the tissues of the skin are called intradermal.
Hypothermia is a lowered body temperature.
Skin cancer is most likely to develop from nonpigmented epithelial cells.
The dermis is composed largely of dense irregular connective tissue
Shafts of hair are composed of dead epidermal cells.
Aging affects the appearance of the skin producing wrinkles and sagging due to decreased collagen and elastin formation. True
In treating a burn patient, the "rule of nines" is used to estimate the surface area of the burn.
A second degree burn is the same as a full-thickness burn. False
Eccrine sweat glands differ from sebaceous glands all of the above. 1-in type of secretion. 2-in their location. 3-in whether or not they are associated with hair follicles.
The human integumentary system includes skin, nails, hair follicles, and sweat glands
As epidermal cells move up through the strata away from their blood supply, they die and become keratinized. True
Skin wrinkles with age because fat is lost from the subcutaneous layer and the dermis shrinks.
Cutaneous carcinomas are usually caused by regular exposure to ultraviolet light.
Three physiological factors that affect the color of skin are: volume of blood in dermal vessels, carotene in the subcutaneous layer, and various diseases True
A nail consists of a nail bed and nail plate.
Which of the following is a normal response to excessive loss of body heat in a cold environment? Dermal blood vessels constrict.
A parietal layer of a serous membrane _______, whereas a visceral layer of a serous membrane ________. lines cavities; covers organs
The anatomical term that indicates a structure close to the surface is superficial
Which of the following characteristics of life and their descriptions are correct? Circulation-the movement of substances in body fluids
In all organisms, the basic unit of structure and function is the cell.
The thoracic cavity lies _____________ the abdominopelvic cavity. superior to
The ears are lateral to the eyes. True
An anatomical section that separates the body into right and left portions is a __________ section. sagittal
The ability of an organism to sense and react to changes in its body illustrates responsiveness.
Kidneys are part of the lymphatic system. False
A chemical reaction in which parts of different molecules trade positions is a(n) exchange reaction.
Which of the following is characteristic of carbohydrates? all of the above. 1-They contain C, H, O, with twice as many hydrogen as oxygen atoms. 2-They provide much of the energy that the cell requires. 3-They include sugars and starches.
Electrolytes are substances that ionize in water.
The atomic weight of an element whose atoms contain 8 protons, 8 electrons, and 8 neutrons is 16
The difference in hydrogen ion concentration between solutions with pH 4 and pH 5 is tenfold.
An organic compound always contains carbon and hydrogen.
The formula H2O refers to A molecule that contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
The major components of the cell membrane are lipids and proteins.
Which of the following does not influence the rate of diffusion? The amount of energy available for transport molecules
Apoptosis is also known as programmed cell death
The process by which cells specialize is called differentiation. True
A protein that spans the cell membrane is termed a(n) integral protein.
For which of the following organelles is the structure and function correctly described? Endoplasmic reticulum-a network of interconnected membranes forming sacs and canals that packages protein molecules for secretion
Created by: lluckey3