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Cardiovascular

Cardiovascular System Vocab Chapter 10

TermDefinition
4 Valves of Heart mitral, tricuspid, pulmonary valve, aortic
3 Layers of Tissues of the Heart epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
Heart center of the circulatory system, muscular organ, not controlled by nervous system, own electro/chemical circle
Pulmonary Circulation a "loop" through the lungs where blood is oxygenated
Systemic Circulation a "loop" through the rest of the body to provide oxygenated blood
Blood flow through the Heart Right Atrium to Right Ventricle then pumped to Pulmonary Artery to Lungs. Left Atrium receives oxygenated blood from Lungs and Pulmonary Vein then passed to Left Ventricle through the Aorta to the organs
Superior Vena Cava carries oxygen-poor blood from the upper parts of your body, including your head, chest, arms and neck
Inferior Vena Cava carries oxygen-poor blood from the lower parts of the body, through right atrium to right ventricle and exits heart via pulmonary artery on its way to the lungs
Bundle of HIS located at septum, divide into right and left bundle branches
AV located at junction of the atrial and ventricle
SA sinoatrial, also called natural pacemaker, located at the junction of the SVC and RA, initiated the impulses
Purkinje Fibers myocardium, forming the electrical impulse-conducting system of heart
Conduct System group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals the heart muscle causing it to contract
Main Components of the Cardiac Conduction System SA Node AV Node Bundle of HIS Bundle Branches Purkinje Fibers
Coronary Arteries supply blood to heart muscle, wrap around outside of heart, originate at the right and left main coronary arteries which exit the ascending aorta
Left Coronary Artery distributes blood to the left side of the heart, the left atrium and ventricle and the interventricular septum
Right Coronary Artery distributes blood to the right atrium, portions of both ventricles
Cardiac Cycle complete heartbeat
Diastole the ventricles are relaxed, blood is passively flowing from the LA to the RA into the LV and RV
Systole the left and right ventricles contract and eject blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery
Blood Pressure the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries, pressure reaches it's highest values in the LV during systole
Systolic Pressure the maximum pressure reached within the ventricles
Diastolic Pressure the minimum pressure within the ventricles
Pericardium fixes the heart to the mediastinum, gives protection against infection and provides the lubrication for the heart
Serous Pericardium divided into 2 layers, the parietal pericardium and visceral pericardium
Pericardial Cavity between the parietal and visceral pericardial layers and contains a supply of lubricating serous fluid known as the pericardial fluid
Angina Pectoris chest pain or discomfort due to CAD, heart doesn't get enough blood it needs, relieved with rest, nitroglycerin or both
CAD most common type of heart disease, leading cause of death in US, happens when the arteries become hardened and narrowed due to build up of cholesterol and plaque, can lead to heart failure
PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) CAD treatment, catheter inserted into the narrow part of artery, wire with a deflated balloon is passed through then inflated compressing the deposits against artery walls, stent is often left in the artery
CABG (coronary artery bypass graft) a surgeon crates a graft to bypass blocked arteries using a vessel from another part of your body, which allows the blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed artery
AMI (acute myocardial infarction) leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, occurs when myocardial ischemia exceeds a critical threshold and overwhelms myocardial cellular repair mechanisms
Transmural Myocardial Infarction characterized by ischemic necrosis of the full thickness of the affected muscle segment(s), extending from the endocardium through the myocardium to the epicardium
Nontransmural Mycardial Infarction an area of ischemic necrosis that doesn't extend through the full thickness of myocardial wall segment(s), it's limited to the endocardium and/or myocardium
STEMI (ST Elevation MI) usually the result of complete coronary occlusion after plaque rupture, arises most often from a plaque that previously caused less than 50% occlusion of the lumen
NSTEMI (Non ST Elevation MI) usually associated with greater plaque burden without complete occlusion
AMI Signs and Symptoms chest pain that radiates into the jaw or teeth, shoulder, arm and/or back, SOB, epigastric discomfort, sweating, syncope, impairment of cognitive function
AMI Diagnosis ECG, cardiac catheterization, Echocardiogram
AMI Treatment Percutaneous Coronary Intervention within 90 mins arrival to hospital, surgical revascularization (CABG)
Cardiomyopathy heart muscle weakens, making the heart unable to pump blood to various body parts, caused by viral infection, alcohol, family history, heart attack
Cardiomyopathy Symptoms breathlessness, swelling of the legs, chest pain, bloating of the abdomen and irregular heartbeats that feel rapid
Dilated Cardiomyopathy most common type of cardiomyopathy; cardiomegaly with ventricular dilation without proportional compensatory hypertrophy
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy significant increase in the myocardial mass with no ventricular dilation
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy impaired filling of the ventricles because of the endocardial or myocardial disease or both; similar to constrictive pericarditis
CHF affects nearly 6 million Americans, leading cause of hospitalization in 65 or older, heart's pumping power is weaker than normal, results in the body retaining water and salt building up in the limbs or other organs and the body becomes conjested
CHF Causes CAD, MI, conditions that overwork the heart, i.e. HTN, valve, thyroid, kidney disease, diabetes or heart defects present at birth
CHF Symptoms congested lungs, fluid and water retention, dizziness, fatigue or weakness, rapid or irregular heartbeats
Systolic Dysfunction (CHF) systolic heart failure; occurs when the heart muscle doesn't contract with enough force, so there is less oxygen-rich blood that is pumped throughout the body
Diastolic Dysfunction (CHF) diastolic heart failure; occurs when the heart contracts normally, but the ventricles do not relax properly or are stiff, and less blood enters the heart during normal filling
Ejection Fraction (EF) calculation done during and echocardiogram to measure how well your heart pumps with each beat to help determine if systolic or diastolic dysfunction is present
CHF Complications kidney damage or failure, heart valve problems, heart rhythm problems, liver damage
CHF Diagnosis B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) blood test, CXR, ECHO, EKG, Cardiac Cath, Stress test
CHF Treatments medications; surgery (Angioplasty)
Cardiac Tamponade clinical syndrome caused by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space, complications include pulmonary edema, shock and death
Cardiac Tamponade Symptoms dyspnea, tachycardia and tachypnea, cold and clammy extremities from hypoperfusion
Cardiac Tamponade Treatment removal of pericardial fluid, emergency subxiphoid percutaneous drainage, pericardiocentesis, percutaneous balloon percardiotomy
Circulatory System consists of 20 major arteries that make a path through tissues, then branch into arterioles and further into capillaries
Aorta largest artery of the body
Circle of Wills (cerebral arterial circle where the internal carotid arteries branch into smaller arteries that supply blood to over 80% of the cerebrum; provides alternate oaths of blood circulation to the brain should one of the other arteries in circle become occluded
Veins carry oxygen-depleted blood toward the heart
Superficial Veins where blood is drawn or intravenous injections are administered
Deep Veins close to the arteries and are generally similarly named
Venous Sinuses collect blood and cerebrospinal fluid then drain into the superior vena cava
Veins of the Leg Small Saphenous and Great Saphenous, also called the Lesser and Greater Saphenous Veins
Greater Saphenous longest vein of the body and is often harvested to repair vessels of the heart
Aneurysm occurs when an artery's wall weakens and causes an abnormally large bulge that ruptures and causes internal bleeding; most common in the brain, aorta, legs and spleen
Aneurysm Diagnose and Treatment diagnosed by CT scan and ultrasound; treatment may require an endovascular stent graft
Arteriosclerosis a slow, progressive disease that may begin in childhood; may start with damage or injury to the inner layer of an artery
Arteriosclerosis Causes HTN, high cholesterol, high triglycerides, smoking, insulin resistance, obesity or diabetes, inflammation from diseases
Arteriosclerosis Symptoms chest pain, numbness or weakness in limbs, difficulty speaking or slurred speech, temp loss of vision in one eye, drooping muscles in face, leg pain, HTN or kidney failure
Primary (Essential) Hypertension tends to develop gradually over many years
Secondary Hypertension (caused by underlying conditions) Obstructive sleep apnea, kidney problems, adrenal gland tumors, thyroid problems, certain defects in blood vessels, certain medications, illegal drugs, alcohol abuse
Hypertension Complications heart attack or stroke, aneurysm, weakened and narrow blood vessels in the kidneys, thickened, narrowed or torn blood vessels in the eyes, metabolic syndrome, trouble with memory or understanding
Hypertension Risk Factors Age, Race, FH, Obesity, not being physical, tobacco use, too much salt, little potassium, alcohol abuse, stress, certain chronic conditions
Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) causes reduced blood flow to the legs as a result of plaque buildup in the arteries, causes pain, calf muscles can atrophy, treatment involves lifestyle changes and medical management
Claudication classic symptom of PAD, intermittent, cramp-like pain in the muscles brought on by exercise and relieved by rest
Thrombophlebitis inflammatory process that causes a blood clot to form and block one or more veins, usually in the legs, causes include trauma, surgery or prolonged inactivity, an inherited blood-clotting disorder; pain and swelling
Thrombophlebitis Risk Factors prolonged inactivity, varicose veins, pacemaker, pregnancy, birth control pills, FH, had a stroke, 60+, obese, have cancer, smoke
Thrombophlebitis Complications and Diagnosis Pulmonary Embolism, Post-Phlebetic Syndrome; ultrasound, blood test, b
Pulmonary Embolism (PE) if part of a deep vein clot becomes dislodged, it can travel to your lungs, where it can block an artery (embolism) and become life-threatening
Post-Phlebetic Syndrome also known as post-thrombotic syndrome, can develop later you've had DVT (deep vein thrombosis), can cause disabling pain, swelling and feeling of heaviness in the affected leg
Thrombus a blood clot formed in situ within the vascular system of the body and impeding blood flow
Embolus may be a blood clot (thrombus), a fat globule, a bubble of air or other gas (gas embolism), or foreign material
Thrombophlebitis Diagnosis and Treatment ultrasound and blood test; blood-thinning and clot-dissolving meds, filter, varicose vein stripping
Varicose Veins are gnarled, enlarged veins; most commonly affected are in legs and feet
Varicose Veins Symptoms dark purple or blue, appear twisted and bulging, achy, heavy feeling in legs, burning, throbbing, muscle cramping, itchy, bleeding from varicose veins
Varicose Veins Complications and Treatment ulcers, blood clots, bleeding; Sclerotherapy, Foam Sclerotherapy of Large Veins, Laser, Catheter-Assisted Procedures, High Ligation and Vein Stripping, Endoscopic Vein Surgery
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) a condition wherein the ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth, resulting in irregular transmission of blood between the aorta and the pulmonary artery; treatment is surgery to close the open channel
Ductus Arteriosus is a fetal blood vessel that closes after birth
Angiography X-ray of the internal anatomy of the heart and blood vessels after contrast medium is injected into an artery or a vein
Cardiac Catheterization a diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is introduced into a large vein or artery and then threaded through the circulatory system to the heart
Cardiac Enzymes Test performed on samples of blood obtained by venipuncture to determine the presence of damage to the myocardial muscle
Computed Axial Tomography (CAT) is a diagnostic X-ray technique that uses ionizing radiation to produce a cross-sectional image of the body
Echocardiography is a diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart; useful in evaluating structural and functional changes in a variety of heart disorders
Electrocardiogram is a graphic record (visual presentation) of the electrical action of the heart as reflected from various angles to the surface of the skin; known as EKG or ECG
Event Monitor records the electrical activity of the heart while the patient goes about the usual daily activities; can be used for longer periods of time than the Holter monitor (usually a month)
Exercise Stress Testing a means of assessing cardiac function by subjecting the patient to carefully controlled amounts of physical stress (using treadmill)
Holter Monitor a small, portable monitoring device that makes prolonged electrocardiograph recordings on a portable tape recorder while patient conducts normal daily activities
Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) an implantable cardioverter defibrillator is small, lightweight, electronic device placed under the skin or muscle in either the chest or abdomen to monitor the heart's rhythm; if abnormal rhythm, it helps return the heart back to normal rhythm
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) use of a strong magnetic field and radiofrequency waves to produce images of the heart, large blood vessels, brain and soft tissue
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) X-ray that uses radioactive substances to examine the blood flow and the metabolic activity of various body structures; patient is given doses of radioactive tracers by injection or inhalation; the radiation emitted is measured by the PET camera
Serum Lipid Test measures the amount of fatty substances (cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins) in a sample of blood obtained by venipuncture
Thallium Stress Test nuclear stress test, a combination of exercise stress testing with thallium imaging to assess changes in coronary blood flow during exercise
Aortic Valve Located between the left ventricle and the aorta
Systole contraction of the heart
Component of the heart's conduction system (the pacemaker): Sinoatrial Node
The aorta bifurcates into the... Common Iliac Arteries
Beginning of the aorta and arises from the left ventricle: Ascending Aorta
The triple-layered sac that encloses the heart: Pericardium
Condition where the heart is unable to pump effectively, weakness, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort, congestion and edema: Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
Which vessels carry or transport blood towards the heart? Veins
Created by: wallace263