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The Cardiovascular System consists of heart, blood vessels, blood
the heart is also know as the pump
blood vessels are know as the ________ system conducting
blood is known as what fluid medium
blood is a ____________ fluid of ____________ tissue specialized , connective
blood contains _____ suspended in a fluid _________ cells, matrix
what is blood primary functions provides cells with nutrients & oxygen remove waste products transport cells that defend tissues from infection and disease
5 important functions of blood transport, regulation, restriction, defense, stabilization
Blood transports dissolved substances
blood regulates pH and ions
blood restricts fluids losses at injury sites
blood defends against toxins and pathogens
blood stabilize body temperature
Blood is: a specialized fluid connective tissue that contains cells suspended in a fluid matrix. (Martini 653)
the heart circulates the fluid and a series of conducting hoses (the blood vessels) that carry it throughout the body
Normal temperature of blood is 100.4 degrees/ 38 Celsius
Blood has a high viscosity
Blood is slightly alkaline pH (7.35- 7.45)
blood average alkaline pH level is 7.4
Blood volume is how much of body weight 7%
male adult has how many liters of blood 5-6
female adult has how many liters of blood 4-5
normal blood volume is 5 liters
whole blood consists of plasma and formed elements
what percentage of blood is plasma 55%
What percentage of blood is formed elements 45%
Plasma is made up of water, dissolved plasma proteins, other solutes
formed elements is made up of all cells and solids
what percentage of plasma is water 92%
___% of formed elements are red blood cells 99.9%
blood alkaline pH level is beyween 7.35-745
Identify the composition of the formed elements in blood. Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
Why is venipuncture a common technique for obtaining a blood sample? superficial veins are easy to locate, the walls of veins are thinner than those of arteries, and blood pressure in veins is relatively low, so the puncture wound seals quickly.
what dissolved proteins are mostly found in plasma albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen make up what percent of plasma proteins 99%
albumins is __% of plasma proteins 60
globulins is __% of plasma proteins 35
fibrinogen is __% of plasma proteins 4
Albumins Transports substances such as fatty acids, thyroid hormones, and some steroid hormones
Globulins Comprised of antibodies and transport globulins
Fibrinogen Molecules that form clots and produce long, insoluble strands of fibrin
Other Plasma Proteins is __% of plasma proteins 1
Other Plasma Proteins Changing quantities of specialized plasma proteins
what are Three Types of Formed Elements red blood cells/erythrocytes, white blood cells, platelets
red blood cells are also known as erythrocytes
white blood cells are also known as leukocytes
The liver synthesizes and releases more than __% of plasma proteins 90
what can be used to increase blood volume temporarily, over a period of hours Plasma expanders
Isotonic electrolyte solutions such as normal (physiological) saline can be used as Plasma expanders
What would be the effects of a decrease in the amount of plasma proteins in the blood? lower plasma osmotic pressure, reduce the ability to fight infection, and decrease the transport and binding of some ions, hormones, and other molecules.
Which specific plasma protein would you expect to be elevated during a viral infection? immunoglobulins (antibodies) in the blood to be elevated.
immunoglobulins are also known as antibodies
give whole blood its deep red color because they contain the red pigment hemoglobin
hemoglobin binds and transports oxygen and carbon dioxide.
The heaviest of the formed elements RBC
Small and highly specialized discs RBC
Thin in middle and thicker at edge RBC
Three Important Effects of RBC Shape on Function High surface-to-volume ratio, disc form stacks & bend and flex
RBC have a high surface-to-volume ratio because they Quickly absorbs and releases oxygen
Discs form stacks called rouleaux
discs from stacks because it Smooth the flow through narrow blood vessels
Discs bend and flex entering small capillaries because 7.8-µm RBC passes through 4-µm capillary
A single drop of whole blood contains approximately ____ million RBC 260
The blood of an average adult has 25 trillion RBCs
The percentage of a blood sample that consists of formed elements (most of which are red blood cells) is known as the hematocrit
The red pigment that gives whole blood its color hemoglobin
Protein molecule in RBCs that binds and transports respiratory gases hemoglobin
Normal hemoglobin of an adult male 14-18 g/dL whole blood
Normal hemoglobin of an adult female 12-14 g/dL whole blood
Whole blood contains about ______ red blood cells for each white blood cell. 1000
hematocrit increases during dehydration due to reduction in plasma volume
hematocrit decreases as a result of internal bleeding or problems with RBC formation
RBC is a _________ disc with a thin central region and a thicker outer margin biconcave
RBC lifespan 120 days
RBC do not preform ________ to themselves repairs
Each heme contains __ iron ion 1
Hemoglobin Structure Contains four ribbon-like protein chains called globins
Iron ions Associate easily with oxygen
iron ions dissociate easily from oxygen
2.5 million RBCs are destroyed who often every second
blood that contains RBCs filled with ____________ is bright red oxyhemoglobin, HbO2
A hemoglobin molecule whose iron is not bound to oxygen is called deoxyhemoglobin
Blood containing RBCs filled with ______________ is dark red—almost burgundy. deoxyhemoglobin
Low oxygen levels hypoxia
Low oxygen levels (hypoxia) induce the production of a protein called erythropoietin
____________ is responsible for the increased production of RBCs in the bone marrow Erythropoietin
About ___% oxygen carried by the blood is bound to Hb molecules inside RBCs. 98.5
Each RBC contains about ____ million Hb molecules. 280
____ Hb molecule contains _____ heme units 1, 4
What are 2 of the best known inherited hemoglobin disorders? thalassemia and sickle cell anemia
Hemopoiesis is The production of blood
Tissues that produce blood cells are called hemopoietic tissues
ematocrit is low or the Hb content of the RBCs is reduced, a condition known as Anemia
Anemia interferes with oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues
An RBC is exposed to severe mechanical stresses
A single round trip from the heart, through the peripheral tissues, and back to the heart usually takes less than one minute
wear and tear and no repair mechanisms, a typical RBC has a short life span after it travels about 700 miles in 120 days
when damage is detected by _______ of the spleen, liver, and red bone marrow, which engulf the RBC phagocytes
Lymphatic tissue produce only Lymphocytes
All blood cells can trace their beginnings to stem cells
____________ of the spleen, liver, and red bone marrow play a role in recycling red blood cell components. Macrophages
When abnormally large numbers of RBCs break down in the bloodstream, urine may turn red or brown. This condition is called hemoglobinuria
The presence of intact RBCs in urine hematuria
hematuria occurs only after kidney damage or damage to vessels along the urinary tract
An orange-yellow pigment released into the bloodstream binds to albumin and is transported to the liver for excretion in bile. bilirubin (bil-i-ROO-bin)
yellow skin and eyes is called jaundice
Red bone marrow is also known as myeloid tissue
Red bone marrow is located in portions of the vertebrae, sternum, ribs, skull, scapulae, pelvis, and proximal limb bones
four days of differentiation, the erythroblast, now called a normoblast, sheds its nucleus and becomes a reticulocyte
For erythropoiesis to proceed normally, the red bone marrow needs adequate supplies of amino acids, iron, and vitamins
Describe hemoglobin protein composed of four globular subunits, each bound to a heme molecule, which gives red blood cells the ability to transport oxygen in the blood.
How would the hematocrit change after an individual suffered a significant blood loss? the amount of formed elements mostly red blood cells as a percentage of the total blood—would be reduced.
if there is a blockage in renal arteries that restricts blood flow to the kidneys. What effect will this have on his hematocrit? hematocrit will increase, because reduced blood flow to the kidneys triggers the release of erythropoietin, which stimulates an increase in erythropoiesis
In what way would a disease that causes damage to the liver affect the level of bilirubin in the blood? Bilirubin would accumulate in the blood, producing jaundice, because diseases that damage the liver, such as hepatitis or cirrhosis, impair the liver’s ability to excrete bilirubin in the bile.
White Blood Cells (WBCs) Also called leukocytes
White Blood Cells (WBCs) do not have hemoglobin
White Blood Cells (WBCs) have Have nuclei and other organelles
WBC Defend against pathogens
WBC remove toxins and waste
WBC attack abnormal cells
Unlike red blood cells, white blood cells lack hemoglobin
Most of the WBCs in the body at any moment are in connective tissue proper or in organs of the lymphatic system
WBC use the bloodsteam to travel from one organ to another
WBC use the blood stream for ________ ___________ to areas of infection or injury. rapid transportation
WBC can detect chemical signs of damage to surrounding tissues
When WBC detects problems they ______ ____ ___________ and enter the damaged area leave the bloodstream
Circulating WBCs have four characteristics: 1. All Can Migrate Out of the Bloodstream. 2.All Are Capable of Amoeboid Movement 3. All Are Attracted to Specific Chemical Stimuli 4. Neutrophils, Eosinophils, and Monocytes Are Capable of Phagocytosis
When WBCs in the bloodstream are activated, they contact and adhere to the vessel walls in a process called margination
a gliding motion made possible by the flow of cytoplasm into slender cellular processes extended in the direction of movement Amoeboid movement or amoeba
Attracted to Specific Chemical Stimuli. positive chemotaxis
Types of WBCs Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Monocytes, Lymphocytes
Neutrophils are ____% - ____% of circulating WBC 50-70
This WBC is very active, first to arrive at injury site and attack bacteria Neutrophil
This WBC engulfs and digests pathogens Neutrophil
This WBC forms pus Neutrophil
This WBC short life span (30 minutes – 10 hours) Neutrophil
This WBC is less than 4% of circulating WBC Eosinophils
This WBC attacks large parasites Eosinophils
This WBC excretes toxic compounds Eosinophils
This WBC Sensitive to allergens Eosinophils
This WBC Controls inflammation with enzymes that counteract inflammatory effects of neutrophils and mast cells Eosinophils
This WBC is 1% of circulating WBC Basophils
This WBC accumulate in damaged tissue Basophils
This WBC releases histamine which dilates blood vessels Basophils
This WBC releases heparin which prevents blood clotting Basophils
This WBC 2-8% of circulating WBC Monocytes
This WBC large and spherical Monocytes
This WBC enter peripheral tissues and become macrophages Monocytes
This WBC engulfs large particles and pathogens Monocytes
This WBC secretes substances that attract immune system cells and fibroblasts to injured area Monocytes
This WBC is 20-40% of circulating WBC Lymphocytes
This WBC larger than RBCs Lymphocytes
This WBC migrate in and out of blood Lymphocytes
This WBC mostly in connective tissues and lymphoid organs Lymphocytes
This WBC are part of the body’s specific defense system Lymphocytes
Three Classes of Lymphocytes T cells, B cells , Natural killer (NK) cells
Cell-mediated immunity T cells
Attack foreign cells directly T cells
Humoral immunity B cells
Differentiate into plasma cells B cells
Synthesize antibodies B cells
Detect and destroy abnormal tissue cells (cancers) Natural killer (NK) cells
Leukopenia Abnormally low WBC count
Leukocytosis Abnormally high WBC count
Leukemia Extremely high WBC count
NEUtrophils are the most NUmerous of the white blood cells
A MONnocyte is the _______ ___that engulfs debris and pathogens MONster cell
Tip to remember the types of WBC: Never Let Monkey Eat Bananas neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils
Which type of white blood cell would you find in the greatest numbers in an infected cut? An infected cut, will have a large number of neutrophils, these phagocytic WBCs are the 1st to arrive at the site of an injury.
Which type of cell would you find in elevated numbers in a person who is producing large amounts of circulating antibodies to combat a virus? during a viral infection elevated numbers of lymphocytes, B lymphocytes produce circulating antibodies.
How do basophils respond to an injury? releasing chemicals, including histamine and heparin. Histamine dilates blood vessels and heparin prevents blood clotting. release other chemicals that attract eosinophils and other basophils to the area.
Platelets in nonmammalian vertebrates are nucleated cells called thrombocytes
Cell fragments involved in human clotting system platelets
Circulate for 9-12 days platelets
Are removed by the spleen platelets
2/3 are reserved for emergencies platelets
Platelet Counts 150,000 to 500,000 per microliter
Thrombocytopenia Abnormally low platelet count
Thrombocytosis Abnormally high platelet count
Three Functions of Platelets Release important clotting chemicals Temporarily patch damaged vessel walls Reduce size of a break in vessel wall
Platelet production thrombocytopoiesis
hemostasis (haima, blood + stasis, halt), the stopping of bleeding
Explain the difference between platelets and thrombocytes. Platelets are nonnucleated cell fragments in mammalian blood, whereas thrombocytes are nucleated platelets in nonmammalian vertebrate blood.
Hemostasis consists of three phases Vascular phase (backwards a-z is now z-a) Platelet phase (V,P,C) Coagulation phase
During the vascular phase a cut of Hemostasis triggers vascular spasm that lasts 30 minutes
1st Step of the Vascular Phase Endothelial cells contract and expose the basement membrane to the bloodstream
2nd Step of the Vascular Phase Endothelial cells release chemical factors and local hormones Stimulates smooth muscle contraction and cell division
3rd Step of the Vascular Phase Endothelial plasma membranes become “sticky” Seals off blood flow
attachment of platelets to sticky endothelial surfaces, to the basement membrane, and to exposed collagen fibers marks the start of the platelet phase of hemostasis
Begins within 15 seconds after injury platelet phase
Platelet adhesion (attachment) TO: sticky endothelial surfaces, basement membranes, exposed collagen fibers
Platelet aggregation (stick together) Forms platelet plug that closes small breaks
Activated platelets release clotting compounds
The Coagulation Phase of Hemostasis Begins 30 seconds or more after the injury
Blood clotting (coagulation) has Cascade reactions
Clotting Factors Also called procoagulants
Normal blood clotting depends on the presence of clotting factors
important clotting factors include Ca2+ and 11 different proteins
Three Coagulation Pathways Intrinsic pathway Common pathway Extrinsic pathway (ICE)
a compound released by basophils and mast cells, is a cofactor that accelerates the activation of antithrombin-III. Heparin
affect almost every aspect of the clotting process Calcium ions and vitamin K
As the repairs proceed, the clot gradually dissolves in a process called fibrinolysis
A sample of red bone marrow has unusually few megakaryocytes. What body process would you expect to be impaired as a result? blood’s ability to clot properly, because fewer megakaryocytes would produce fewer platelets.
Vitamin K is fat soluble, and some dietary fat is required for its absorption. How could a diet of fruit juice and water have an effect on blood clotting? do not contain fats needed for vitamin K absorption, leading to a vitamin K deficiency. This would lead to a decreased production of several clotting factors—most notably, prothrombin. As a result, clotting time would increase.
Unless chemically treated, whole blood will coagulate in a test tube. This clotting process begins when Factor XII becomes activated. Which clotting pathway is involved in this process? The activation of Factor XII initiates the intrinsic pathway.
Substances that can trigger a protective defense mechanism called an immune response Antigens
plasma membranes contain ________ ________ substances that your immune system recognizes as “normal.” Surface Antigens
blood type is determined by the presence or absence of specific surface antigens in RBC plasma membranes.
Substances that can trigger a protective defense mechanism called an immune response Antigens
Normal cells are ignored and while they attack foreign cells surface antigens
Genetically determined by the presence or absence of RBC surface antigens A, B, Rh (or D) blood types
Four Basic Blood Types A, B, AB, O
Antigens on the surface of RBCs Agglutinogens
Plasma antibodies attack and agglutinate (clump) foreign antigens Agglutinogens
Screened by the immune system Agglutinogens
Antibodies for type A type B
Antibodies for type B Type A
Antibodies for type O Both A and B
Antibodies for type A&B neither A nor B
The Rh Factor is also called D antigen D antigen
Only _________ Rh- blood has anti-Rh antibodies sensitized
Testing for Transfusion Compatibility Performed on donor and recipient blood for compatibility
Without cross-match type O- is universal donor
The two primary functions of blood provide food and air remove waste transport
The two main components of blood plasma and formed elements
What makes up the highest percentage of plasma? Water 92% pf plasma is water
The four types of blood A, B, AB, O
Three of the five types of WBCs neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils (never let monkeys eat bananas)
The three steps of hemostasis Vascular phase (backwards a-z is now z-a) Platelet phase (V,P,C) Coagulation phase
Created by: Charon514



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