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AP Gov Midterm

Chapter 7 (interest groups), 9 (elections), 10 (media)

Climate Control Practice of using public outreach to build favorable public opinion of an organization
Collective Goods Outcomes shared by the general public; also called public goods
Economic Incentive Motivation to join an interest group b/c group works for policies that will provide members with material benefits
Electioneering Working to influence the elections of candidates who support the organizations issues
Elite Theory Theory that holds that a group of wealthy, educated individuals wields most political power
Free Rider Problem Phenomenon of someone deriving benefit from others' actions
Interest Group Organization that seeks to achieve goals by influencing government decision making
Iron Triangle 1.) Members of Congress 2.) Executive Departments & Agencies 3.) Organized Interest Groups
Issue Network Fluid web of connections among those concerned about a policy & those who create & administer the policy
Lobby Communicate directly w/ policy makers on an interest group's behalf
Pluralist Theory Theory that holds that policy making is a competition among diverse interest groups that ensure the representation of individual interests
Political Action Committee Entity whose specific goal is to raise and spend money to influence the outcome of elections
Public Employee Unions Labor organizations comprising federal, state, and municipal workers, including police officers & teachers
Purposive Incentive Motivation to join an interest group based on the belief in the group's cause from an ideological or moral standpoint
Rational Choice Theory Idea that from an economic perspective it is not rational for people to participate in collective action when they can secure the collective good without participating
Social Capital Many ways in which our lives are improved by social connections
Solidary Incentive Motivation to join interest group based on companionship; satisfaction derived from socializing with others that it offers
Umbrella Organizations Interest groups that represent collective groups on an interest group's behalf
Consolidation Large corporations buying smaller ones so that there are fewer and fewer companies' products available
Convergence Merging of various forms of media, including newspapers, tv stations, radio networks & blogs, under one corporate roof & one set of business & editorial leaders.
Digital Paywall Practice of limiting access to a website unless users pay a fee or purchase a subscription
Fairness Doctrine Required that stations holding broadcast licenses present controversial issues of public importance & do so in a manner that is honest, fair, and balanced
Fireside Chats President Franklin D. Roosevelt's radio addresses to the country (direct access to citizens)
Framing Process by which the media set a context that helps people to understand important events and letters of shared interest
Infotainment Hybrid of words information and entertainment news shows that combine entertainment/news
Journalism Practice of gathering & reporting events
Letter to the Editor Letter in which reader responds to a story in newspaper, knowing that letter might be published in that paper
Media Tools used to store and deliver information or data
Media Segmentation Breaking down of the media according to the specific audiences they target
Muckraking Criticism and exposés of corruption in government and industry by journalists at the turn of the 20th century
Narrow casting The practice of aiming media content at specific segments of the public
New Media Sources of information including Internet websites, blogs, social networking sites, apps, and cellular/ satellite technology to facilitate their use
Penny Press Newspapers that sold for a penny in the 1830s
Priming Bringing certain policies on issues to the public agenda through media coverage
Public Agenda Public issues that most demand the attention of government officials
Talk Radio Format featuring conversations & interviews about topics of interest, call-ins from listerners
Telegenic Quality of looking good on TV
Yellow Journalism Irresponsible, sensationalism approach to news reporting, so noted after the yellow ink used in the "Yellow Kid" cartoons in the New York World
Absentee Voting Casting a ballot in advance by mail in situations where illness, travel, or other circumstances prevent voters from voting in their precincts
Australian Ballot A secret ballot prepared by the government, distributed to all eligible voters, and , when balloting is completed, counted by government officials in an unbiased fashion, without corruption or regard to individual preferences
Campaign Consultant Paid professional who specializes in the overall management of political campaigns or an aspect of campaigns
Campaign Manager A professional whose duties include a variety of strategic and managerial tasks, from fund-raising to staffing a campaign
Campaign Strategy Blueprint for the campaign, including a budget and fund-raising plan, advertising strategy, and staffing plan
Caucus Meeting of party members held to select delegates to the national convention
Chad A ready-made perforation on a punch card ballot
Citizens United v Federal Election Commission Supreme Court ruling stating that corporations and labor unions are entitled to the same First Amendment protections that individuals enjoy, resulting in drastically increased spending through superPACs by corporations & labor organizations
Closed Primary A type of primary in which voting in a party's primary is limited to members of that party
Coattail Effect The phenomenon by which candidates running for lower-level offices such as city council benefit in an election from the popularity of a top-of-ticket nominee
501(c)4s Nonprofit organizations operated exclusively for the promotion of social welfare, including lobbying or engaging in political campaigning
527 A tax-exempt group that raises money for political activities
Fund-raising Consultant A professional who works with candidates to identify likely contributors to the campaign & arranges events and meetings with donors
General Election An election that determines which candidates win the offices being sought
GOTV Get out the vote
Grassroots Organizing Tasks that involve direct contact with voters or potential voters
Incumbency The situation of already holding the office that is up for reelection
Independent Expenditures Outlays by PACs and others, typically for advertising for or against a candidate, but uncoordinated with a candidate's campaign
Initiative A citizen-sponsored proposal that can result in new or amended legislation or a state constitutional amendment
Instant Runoff Election A special runoff election in which the computerized voting machine stimulates the elimination of last-place vote-getters
Media Consultant A professional who brings the campaign message to voters by creating handouts and all forms of media ads
Office-block Ballot A type of ballot that arranges all the candidates for a particular office under the name of that office
Open Primary A type of primary in which both parties' ballots are available in the voting booth, and voters select one on which to register their preferences
Party-column Ballot A ballot that organizes the candidates by political party
Proposition A proposed measure placed on the ballot in an initiative election
Prospective Voting A method of evaluating candidates in which voters evaluate incumbent candidates and decide whether to support them based on their past performance
Rational Abstention Thesis A theory that some individuals decide the costs of voting are not worth the effort when compared to the benefits
Recall A special election in which voters can remove an officeholder before his or her term is over
Referendum An election in which voters in a state can vote for or against a measure proposed by the state legislature
Retrospective Voting A method of evaluating candidates in which voters evaluate incumbent candidates and decide whether to support them based on their past performance
Run-off Election A follow-up election held when no candidate receives the majority of votes cast in the original election
Salient In relation to a voting issue--having resonance, being significant, causing intense interest
Super PACs Political organizations that use contributions from individuals, corporations, and labor unions to spend unlimited sums independent from the campaigns, yet influencing the outcomes of elections
Super Tuesday The Tuesday in early March on which the most primary elections are held, many of them in southern states
Turnout rate The proportion of eligible voters who actually voted
Voter Fatigue The condition in which voters grow tired of all candidates by the time Election Day arrives, and may thus be less likely to vote
Created by: machowell20
Popular American Government sets




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