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Nervous System

Nervous System Vocab Chapter 8

TermDefinition
Aphasia Inability to speak
Ataxia Without muscular coordination
Aura sensation experienced before seizure
Bradykinesia abnormally slow movement
Contracture permanent shortening of a muscle; physical deformity
Diplopia Double vision; also called ambiopia
Dyslexia reading impairment; letters and words are reversed
Hemiparesis slight or partial paralysis of one half of the body
Hemiplegia paralysis of one half of the body
Hyperkinesis excessive muscular movement and physical activity; hyperactivity
Lethargy state of being sluggish
nuchal rigidity neck is resistant to flexion
Paraplegia paralysis of the lower extremities and trunk
Paresthesia sensation of numbness or tingling
Quadriplegia paralysis of all 4 extremities and trunk
Sciatica inflammation of the sciatic nerve
Stupor state of lethargy
Alzheimer's Disease deterioration of a person's intellectual functioning; 3 stages, aggressive, most common form of dementia
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Lou Gehrig's Disease; motor neuron disease in which nerve cells gradually break down and die; muscle twitching and weakness in limb, or slurred speech; no cure and fatal
Anencephaly an absence of the brain and spinal cord at birth; a congenital disorder
Bells' Palsy temporary or permanent unilateral weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the face
Brain Abscess localized accumulation of pus located anywhere in the brain tissue due to an infectious process
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a pinching or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel due to inflammation and swelling of the tendons
Cerebral Concussion mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI); brief interruption of brain function; usually loss of consciousness lasting a few seconds
Cerebral Contusion a bruise of the brain tissue; occurs in 20-30% of severe head injuries, frequently associated with cerebral edema
Cerebral Palsy caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance and posture; occurs in about 2.1 per 1,000 births, abnormal muscle tone, reflexes or motor development and coordination
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) involves death of specific portion of brain tissue due to lack o f oxygen when the blood flow to the brain is impaired by blockage or rupture of an artery; stroke
Degenerative Disk deterioration of the intervertebral disk, usually due to constant motion and wear on the disk
Encephalitis inflammation of the brain; viral infections are the most common cause; no symptoms or mild flu-like symptoms
Epilepsy syndrome of recurring episodes of excessive irregular electrical activity of the brain; seizures
Grand Mal Seizure epileptic seizure; sudden loss of consciousness; involuntary muscular contraction; rigid body extension; alternating contracting and relaxing of muscles
Petit Mal Seizure small seizure; temporary loss of consciousness lasting a few seconds; also known as absence seizure
Guillain-Barre Syndrome acute polyneurtitis of the PNS in which the myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed
Headache (Cephalagia) involves pain anywhere within the cranial cavity
Migraine Headache is a recurring, pulsating vascular headache; usually develops on one side of the head
Cluster Headache occurs typically 2 or 3 hours after falling asleep; extreme pain around one eye that awakens a person; most painful type
Tension Headache generally diffuse, mild to moderate head pain described as feeling like a tight band around head; most common headache
Hematoma, Epidural collection of blood located above the dura mater and just below the skull
Hematoma, Subural collection of blood below the dura mater and above the arachnoid layer of the meninges
Herniated Disk rupture or herniation of the disk center through the disk wall and into the spinal canal
Huntington's Chorea inherited neurological disease; rapid, jerky, involuntary movements and increasing dementia
Hydrocephalus an abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, resulting in increased head size with open fontanel; congenital disorder
Meningitis (Acute Bacterial) inflammation of the meninges; caused by infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord; typical symptom is nuchal rigidity
Multiple Sclerosis disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord;
Narcolepsy rare syndrome of uncontrolled sudden attacks of sleep
Parkinson's Disease degenerative, slowly progressive deterioration of nerves in the brain stem's motor system; tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability
Shingles (Herpes Zoster) acute viral infection seen mainly adults who have had chicken pox; painful
Neurolgia special type of connective tissue for the NS, support for neurons, do not conduct impulses, protect neuron through phagocytosis
Neuron actual nerve cell
Spastic Cerebral Palsy most common type of CP; damage to the cortex of the brain; causing tense muscles and irritable muscle tone
Status Epilepsy a dangerous condition in which epileptic seizures follow one another without recovery of consciousness between them
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain (from an aneurysm or head injury)
The space between the dura mater and the arachnoid that contains lubricating fluid... Subdural
This area lies between the lungs on the midsagittal plane and contains several organs and structures..... Mediastinum
Created by: wallace263