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BIO104 Chap11- Blood

DefinitionDefinition
Heart, blood vessels, and blood Cardiovascular system includes:
1) Substances we need from external environment 2) Substances we need to eliminate through wastes 3) Substances we synthesize that are delivered to other organs Cardiovascular system transports: (3)
1) TRANSPORT (gases, nutrients, hormones, wastes) 2)REGULATES pH and ion makeup 3)RESTRICTS fluid loss at injury sites 4) DEFENDS against toxins and pathogens 5) STABILIZES body temperature Functions of blood: (5)
Plasma and formed elements Liquid Connective Tissue is made up of:
Thickness or Stickiness Viscosity of Blood
Slightly alkaline around 7.4 Blood pH
Venipuncture Whole blood collected from veins
Arterial Puncture To evaluate gas exchange efficiency
Plasma Proteins, Hormones, Nutrients, Gases, and Water Plasma contains:
1) Albumins 2) Globulins 3) Fibrinogen 3 Plasma Proteins
Serum Plasma - Clotting Proteins =
Albumins Plasma protein that maintains osmotic pressure of plasma
Globulins Plasma protein that transports proteins and antibodies
Fibrinogen Plasma protein that functions in blood clotting. Converts to FIBRIN
Hemoglobin Pigment molecule for blood that transports oxygen
1) Increased surface area increases rate of diffusion 2) Increased flexibility to squeeze through narrow capillaries Advantages of red blood cell shape (2)
Hemoglobin Hb
Anemia Reduction in oxygen-carrying capacity caused by low hematocrit or low hemoglobin
RBC Blood cell with no organelles
120 days Average life span of RBC
The liver, spleen, and bone marrow RBCs are phagocytized in:
Hemocytoblasts Produces myeloid stem cells
Hypoxia Low tissue oxygen
Erythropoietin (EPO) Hypoxia triggers the release of what hormone?
Myeloid stem cell tissue in bone marrow Target tissue of erythropoietin (EPO)
Blood type Presence or absence of antigens on RBC determines:
A, B, and Rh Three Major Antigens
Antigens Markers on the RBC that trigger an attack on foreign cells
Antibody Responds to the trigger and DOES the attacking
Agglutinins or Immunoglobulins Other names for antibodies
Agglutination Clumping of red blood cells caused by antibodies
White Blood Cells (WBC) Larger than RBCs, involved in immune response and lack hemoglobin
Granulocytes and Agranulocytes Two Categories of WBCS
Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils Granulocytes consist of:
Lymphocytes and monocytes Agranulocytes consist of:
Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes Responds to any threat
Lymphocytes Responds to a specific, individudal threat
Neutrophils First WBC to arrive at injury. Has multitubular nucleus. Numbers increase during acute bacterial infections.
Eosinophils WBC with deep red granules. Numbers increase during parasitic infection or allergic reactions.
Basophils WBC with deep red granules and a two lobed nucleus. Numbers increase during parasitic infection or allergic reactions
Monocytes WBC with a large kidney shaped nucleus. Migrate into tissues and become macrophages.
Lymphocytes WBC with nucleus taking up most of cell. Some attack foreign cells, others secrete antibodies into circulation.
Leukopenia Reduction in total WBCs is called
Leuokocytosis Excessive numbers of WBCs is called
Leukemia Extremely high WBC count and is a cancer of blood forming tissues
Thrombocytopenia Low count of platelets is called
1) Vascular phase 2) Platelet Phase 3) Coagulation phase Three phases of Hemostasis:
Vascular Phase Phase of hemostasis where endothelial cells become stick and a vascular spam of smooth muscle occurs.
Platelet Phase Phase of hemostasis where platelets attach to sticky endothelium, and more platelets arrive and form a plug.
Coagulation Phase Phase of hemostasis where fibrinogen is converted to fibrin, and fibrin mesh grows. Also called "blood clotting"
Clotting factors Calcuim ions, vitamin K, and plasma proteins are all:
EXtrinsic Pathway Damaged tissue releases tissue factor, combines with calcium and clotting proteins and leads to forming an enzyme that activates factor X
INtrinsic Pathway Activation of proenzymes exposed to collagen fivers, platelt factor released from platelets, and forms and enzyme that activates factor X
Clot retraction Platelets retract and pull tissue close together in:
Fibrinolysis During repair of tissue, the clot dissolves through:
Plasminogen Activated by thrombin and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)
Dissolved proteins Plasma which is a fluid connective tissue, contains:
Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide Hemoglobin's molecular properties are to:
In plasma Where are agglutinins located?
RBC membrane Where are agglutinogens located?
Basophil Which leuokcyte is responsible for releasing histamine at the site of an injury?
Monocyte Which leukocyte is an aggressive phagocyte?
Lymphocytes WBC that is important in producing antibodies
Common Pathway Prothrombin -> Thrombin and Fibrinogen -> Fibrin is known as what?
Thrombus Blood clot attached to a blood vessel wall
Embolus Drifting blood clot
Dissolves clots What does the process of fibrinolysis do?
Fibrinogen Clotting protein found in the bloodstream that is made by the liver
Created by: ambper7277