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AP Euro history ch19

Age of Napoleon and Romanticism

The Directory failed to provide stability that the people of France was looking for and what did the Royalist wanted bring back? The Royalist wants to restore the constitutional monarchy and bring back the Bourbon Monarch. In 1797, many constitutional monarchist got elected to the legislature and threaten the Directory's power.
In response to the Royalist, what did the Directory do? The Directory staged a coup d’ etat on September 4, 1797 in order to prevent the monarchists from taking their seats in the legislature. Napoleon Bonaparte supported the coup.
Who was Napoleon Bonaparte? He the son of a lesser noble and achieve fame in the military during French Revolution. He played a leading role in recovering the port of Toulon from the British. He commanded the French army in Italy.
What were some Napoleon's victories? France conquered Belgium. France invades Italy and defeats the Austrian and Sardinian armies.
What were some Napoleon's defeats? Nelson defeats the French naval fleet at Abukir in August 1798. The Russians and Austrians defeats France in Italy and Switzerland in 1799. The British also drives France out of Egypt in 1799.
The Directory proposes a new constitution in the Third year. A Directory member (Abbe Sieyes) creates a new constitution and with the help of Napoleon stages a coup to take over the government. Sieves hoped Napoleon would hand over power after the coup.
What were the main ideas of this new constitution? Executive power is divided among three consuls with first consul having supreme authority. It promoted universal male suffrage. It in included a complicated system of checks and balances.
What did Napoleon do after the coup? Napoleon claim the title of First Consul. He used the rhetoric of revolution and nationalism, back by the military power to make himself emperor and ended the French Revolution.
What were the results of the French Revolution? It gave the French middle class (Bourgeoisie) many opportunities that were only available to the upper class by abolishing many hereditary privilege. Peasants gained land and destroyed the oppressive feudal system.
Napoleon sought peace with its neighbors with war and treaties. After Russia left the Second Coalition, France defeated Austria in Italy in 1800. Britain and France made peace in 1802 with the Treaty of Amiens.
Napoleon sought to appeases some of his enemies and suppress others that would bow to his powers. He issued a general amnesty and employed men from all political factions. He did not trust people, so he used secret police to identify opposition. He suppress the Jacobins. He also executed the Duke of Enghien, ending the Royalist's plot to power.
Napoleon and the Catholic Church In France's war with Italy, Napoleon forced the Pope Pius VI from Rome into exile. The policy towards the Church was not popular with the French people.
What was the Concordat with the Roman Catholic Church? The accord, the France established supremacy over the Church. The accord except spiritual investiture from the pope but all Bishops was selected by the state. The Church was release claims to all property and all Clergy had to swear loyalty to the state.
Napoleon is first consul for life In 1802, a plebiscite ratified Napoleon as consul for life and grants him full powers.
The Napoleonic Code (Civil code of 1804) Workers associations remained forbidden. Fathers were granted extensive control over their children and wives and divorce was made difficult. It upheld the abolition of privileges based on birth.
Napoleon crowns himself emperor The plebiscite approves a constitutional change to make Napoleon emperor for life. He crown himself at the cathedral of Notre Dame with the force attendance of Pope Pius VII to show his power of authority.
Napoleon defeats most of Europe. In Oct. 1805, he defeats the Austrian army. In Dec 1805, he defeats Austrian and Russian forces at Austerlitz. In 1806, he defeats the Prussians at Jena and Auerstadt .
What was the Treaty of Tilsit This treaty Negotiated by Napoleon and Tsar Alexander I where Prussia lost half of its territories.
Napoleon ideas to stop trade with British called the Continental System. He could beat the British by military means, he wanted prevent trade with British. The Milan decree of 1807, attempt to stop neutral countries with trading with British. He conquered Spain in order to prevent smuggling to British.
Napoleon war in Spain In 1807, he invaded Spain. Spain resisted with Guerilla warfare and soon the British join in the fight. The Austrian declare war on France in 1809 but was defeated with the Peace treaty of Schonbrunn. He also takes Marie Louise of Austria as his new wife.
Napoleon war on Russia He assembles a army of 600,000 men. He attacks the Russian army, but the Russians only retreat from fighting and destroy all food and resources along the way. The french army is caught in the Russian winter and low on food. Only 100,000 men return home.
The last European coalition army fights Napoleon The Russian, Austrian, and Prussian armies and the British army formed the coalition. France defeated the coalition at Dresden but France lost at Leipzig in the Battle of the Nations.
Napoleon loose the war and goes into exile In March 1814, the allied armies marched into Paris and Napoleon abdicated and went into exile on the island of Elba.
With Napoleon gone, the European power force a treaty on France. In March 1914, the Treaty of Chaumont called for the restoration of the Bourbons to the throne of France to be enforced by the major European powers of Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia
What was the Congress of Vienna It was an agreement between the four great European powers that no one nation be dominate. They would increase the armies surrounding France. They would establish legitimate monarchs and reject republican or democratic policies.
Napoleon return to France from Elba The French people were still loyal and rallied to him. The Allies declared Napoleon an outlaw and moved against him. Napoleon with his army meet the Allies in the in Battle at Waterloo in 1815. Napoleon loose the war & exile to the island of Saint Helena
The Beginning of the Romantic movement It started with ideas from Rousseau conviction that society and material prosperity had corrupted human society. It is also influence by Immanuel Kant's books "The Critique of Pure Reason" and "The Critique of Practical Reason"
The Romantic Writers The English Romantic Writers were Wordsworth and Lord Bryon. The German Romantic Writers were Frederich Schlegel and Goethe.
Created by: Dquong101