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AP Euro History Ch18

Ch 18 - French Revolution

Who was the King of France during the French Revolution and what problems did he have? King Louis the XV1 was on throne and he was running out money. He needed to raise money and only way was to raise taxes.
Why King Louis XVI in such a bad financial state? The seven year war (1756-1763) had left France deeply in debt. In addition, France's support for the American Revolt against the British also added to France's financial problems.
King Louis XVI needed to tax the nobles but these efforts were blocked by the Parlement of Paris and provincial parlements. So what did the King do? The King tried to weaken the power of the Parlements by breaking them up. The King appointed Charles Calonne as finance minister to negotiate with the Assembly of Notables (members of nobles and Church) but the Assembly rejects him.
After King Louis XVI is rejected by the Assembly of Notables, what did he do? The King appoints Etienne Charles Lomenie de Brienne as the new finance minister. Brienne tries to appeal the Assembly of the Clergy and banks for financial support but was rejected. So Brienne called for a meeting of the Estates General and resigned.
What is the meeting of the Estates General ? The Estates General was composed of 3 groups called Estates, the First estate was the clergy, the Second Estate the nobility, and the Third estate was everyone else in the kingdom.
What changed at the meeting of Estates General ? The organization of the Third Estate was change to doubling the Third Estate in size giving twice as many representatives as the clergy and nobles and more power.
What list of grievances were presented? Cahiers de doleances were a list of grievances covering government waste, indirect taxes, church taxes and corruption, and hunting rights of the aristocracy.
What did the Third Estate form in response to it's standoff with the King? The Third Estates creates the National Assembly.
What did the King do to prevent the National Assembly from meeting? The King called a “Royal Session” of the Estates General and ordered the assembly halls closed and locked to prevent the National Assembly from meeting.
Where did the National Assembly meet and what did they agree to? They meet in a nearby tennis court and made the Tennis Court Oath. They were joined by some members of the First and Second Estate with an intent to write a new constitution.
What was the King's reaction to the new National Constitutional Assembly? The King considered taking military action against this new group.
What was the reaction of the people? The people already mad and already had bread riots also decided to form local militias.
What happen at the Bastille prison and armory? A group a local decided to go to the Bastille armory to get weapons. The royal troops fired on the group, killing 98 people. The crowd storm the armory, release 7 prisoners and killing some troop and the commander.
The local Paris militia was rename and headed by whom? The local Paris militia was rename the National Guard and headed by Marquis de Lafayette, a hero of the American Revolution. He picked the colors of red, white, blue strips as his flag and which becomes the French flag.
What did the National Constitutional Assembly announced? In 1789, it announced the The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen.
What was in the The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen and why women were mad? The document asserted: all men were “born and remain free and equal in rights" and etc. This document only applied to men and not women.
What was the Parisian Women march on Versailles? The march was more about food. There a a rumor that grain was being horded in Versailles and people just did not trust the royals. Bread was scarce and expensive. The protested for more food and other things.
During the reconstruction period in France, how did the National Constitutional Assembly reorganize the political structure of government? The Legislative Assembly is where all laws would originate. The King can veto which could delay but not halt a legislation. The Assembly had power to declare war and peace.
How were citizens divided? You are a Active Citizen, if you paid taxes equal to about 3 days of work in a year, could read French and could use reason and live here for 1 year. You are a Passive Citizen, if do not have property or voting rights. You can be in government.
Olympe de Gouges’s Declaration of the Rights of Women She advocated for women rights barrow from the The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen.
The National Constitutional Assembly replaces Provinces with Departments. The National Constituent Assembly abolished the ancient French provinces of Burgundy and Brittany and established in their place 83 administrative units called departments.
The National Constitutional Assembly takes over Church property and does what? Due the poor economic, The Assembly decided to pay the debt by confiscating and selling Roman Catholic church property and lands. It issues Assignats which were government bonds against the value of the properties.
What was the Civil Constitution of the Clergy ? In July 1790, the National Constituent Assembly issued the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in order to reconstruct the Church in France after its lands had been confiscated. This was to put the Church under State control.
Who were the Jacobins? A club of like-minded men that emerged out of the National Assembly. They wanted a republic rather than a constitutional monarchy.
Who were the Girondists? They were a subgroup of the Jacobins and assumed leadership in the Assembly. They led the Assembly to declare war on Austria and believe ware was necessary for the revolution to survive
What was the result of war on Austria? War radicalized politics in France and led to the overthrow of the constitutional monarchy and established a republic—this is commonly known as the Second Revolution
King Louie XVI is out of power On Aug 10 1792, Crowds swarmed the Tuileries Palace and forced Louis XVI and Marie Antionete to take refuge in the Legislative Assembly. The King is thrown out of power.
Who were the Sans-culottes? The second revolution was the work of the radical Jacobins and the people of Paris known as the sans-culottes. They included shopkeepers, artisans, wage earners, and even some factory workers.
What did the Sans-culottes believe in? They are anit-monarchical, strongly republican and suspicious even of representative government.
War with Europe By April 1793, the Jacobins had control of the government and France was at war with Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, Sardinia, and Holland. This group was called the First Coalition
What was created to defend the Republic? The Committee of Public Safety created to carry out the executive duties of the government.
Who was Maximilien Robespierre and his relation to the Committee of Public Safety He was dominate person in the Committee of Public Safety. With Robespierre the Committee of Public Safety carry out its reign of terror.
Victims of the reign of terror Marie Antionette, other members of the royal family, and many aristocrats who were executed in October 1793. Many people in the provinces including priests and peasants alike were executed.
The Revolutionaries turn against themselves Robespierre executes many political leaders and executed certain extreme sans-culottes leaders known as enrages. He even executed previous popular members like Jacques Danton,
Fall of Robespierre He had executed so many people and finally the members of the convention had him arrested and execute Robespierre and 80 of his followers.
The Convention took back power With the execution of Robespierre, the Committee of Public Safety was relieve from power. This ended the reign of terror but not before 25000 people died.
Thermidorian Reaction Robespierre was executed on 9 Thermidor so the subsequent events are collectively known as the “Thermidorian Reaction.” With this the machinery of terror was destroyed and the radical sans-culottes leadership replaced.
A new Constitution is created A new Constitution was written which created a legislature with two houses: Council of Elders and the lower Council of 500
Establishment of the Directory This executive body was to be a five-person Directory whose members would select from a list submitted by the lower council of 500 and approved by the Council of Elders.
End of Sans-culottes The Convention severed its ties with the sans-culottes.
Created by: Dquong101