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Nervous System

A&P II Chapter 8

Neuroglia connective tissue for nervous system - provides support system for neurons - does not conduct impulses - protect nervous system through phagocytosis
three types of neuroglia cells astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes
phagocytosis engulfing bacteria of other microorganisms
astrocytes star-shaped cells - largest & most numerous - found only in CNS - forms blood-brain barrier
neuron functional unit of nerve cell - three basic parts are cell body, axon, dendrites
cell body (of neuron) contains nucleus and cytoplasm
axon carries impulses away from cell body - some are covered with myelin sheath
dendrites conduct impulses toward cell body
synapse space between two nerves - contains neurotransmitters
myelin sheath protects axon and speeds transmission of impulses - acts like insulator - appears white making up white matter
brain and spinal chord part of CNS - surrounded by meninges (membranes) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
sympathetic nerves "fight or flight" regulate essential involuntary body functions - increased heart rate, blood pressure, constrict blood vessels
parasympathetic nerves regulate essential involuntary body functions bringing body to restful state
autonomic nervous system provides involuntary control - contains sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves
divisions of nervous system central nervous system (CNS) contains brain and spinal chord & peripheral nervous system (PNS) contains 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
peripheral nervous system (PNS) somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
apraxia inability to perform coordinated movements or use objects properly - NOT associated with sensory or motor impairment or paralysis
ataxia without muscular coordination
agraphia inability to convert one's thoughts into writing
aphasia inability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs bc of an injury to or disease in certain areas of the brain
cerebral concussion brief interruption of brain function, usually with loss of consciousness lasting for a few seconds. usually caused by blunt trauma to the head
cerebral contusions small scattered venous hemorrhages in the brain - "bruise" of the brain tissue occurring when brain strikes inner skull
Bell's palsy temporary or permanent unilateral weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the face
epilepsy syndrome of recurring episodes of excessive irregular electrical activity of the brain resulting in involuntary muscle movements called seizures
hemiplagia partial paralysis of one half of the body
paraplegia paralysis of lower extremities and trunk due to spinal chord injuries
quadriplegia paralysis of all four extremities and trunk of body cause by injury to spine at cervical vertebrae
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) involves death of a specific portion of brain tissue resulting from a decrease in blood flow (ischemia) to that area of brain aka stroke
causes of CVA or stroke cerebral hemorrhage, thrombosis and embolism
encephalitis inflammation of the brain cause by a virus that enter the CNS - measles, mumps or mosquito or tick bite
meningitis (acute bacterial) serious bacterial infection of meninges which covers the brain and spinal chord - can be treated with antibiotic therapy
Parkinson's disease degenerative, slowly progressive deterioration of nerves in the brain stem's motor system. systems are motor dysfunction, autonomic system dysfunction, mental and emotional dysfunction. occurs in late 30's/40's
thrombosis clots in arteries
embolus detached clot in circulatory system
cerebral hemorrorhage due to hypertension
grand mal seizure epileptic seizure characterized by sudden loss of consciousness and involuntary muscular contraction, proceeded by aura (flashing lights), vacillates between rigid body and alternating contracting and relaxing of muscles. aka tonic-clonic seizure
petit mal seizure aka absence seizures - last only a few seconds - sudden temporary loss of consciousness
cephalagia headache
multiple sclerosis (MS) degenerative inflammatory disease of the CNS attacking the myelin sheath of spinal chord and brain
Created by: gcjlentz
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