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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Cities, Immigrants, and Farmers from Gateway textbook

urbanization the movement of people from the countryside into the city
overcrowding and slums low income housing, families living in one room apartments with minimal if any amenities.
lack of sanitation and pollution contaminated drinking water, raw sewage, inadequate garbage collection & airborne chemicals
tenements low cost rental properties
traffic congestion due to overcrowding, people in the streets, the inability for people to move on the streets or drive carriages/cars
vast differences in wealth the rich live right down the street from the poor. Tensions between the two groups became an issue in crowded cities
political corruption within cities, politicians were bought by the wealthy and the poor and immigrants suffered.
political machine an organization usually controlled by a strong leader that got citizens to vote for selected candidates.
Tammany Hall located in New York City in 1789 to 1930s, this political machine was responsible for the naming of mayors and other government officials (usually corruptly).
Boss Tweed He was one of the most corrupt politicians of his day. He accepted "kickbacks" from the rich to move legislation in their favor.
Thomas Nast he was political satirical artist that made fun of Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall by using his published drawings.
push and pull immigration conditions in immigrants' home countries that propelled them to leave and come to America
Old immigrants they came from Great Britain, Ireland and Germany up to 1880. They mostly spoke English
New immigrants they came from Southern and Eastern Europe: Poland, Russia, Italy, Greece from 1880 to 1924. They spoke no English and were Catholic, Jewish & Greek Orthodox
ghettos neighborhoods where immigrants settled with people like themselves (language/culture)
Americanization assimilated into mainstream American society by learning its values and behaviors.
Chinese immigrants began arriving during 1840-50s California Gold Rush and labor helped to build the transcontinental railroad (West to East).
Naturalization Law of 1870 prevented Asian immigrants from becoming naturalized citizens
Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 banned all further Chinese immigrants from China. It was the first immigration restriction by the United States Government
Gentlemen's Agreement 1907 the United States and Japanese governments agreed to end any further Japanese immigration to the United States
nativism the general belief that Protestant native-born Americans were superior to others and the immigrants and others were undesirables.
Ellis Island After 1892, poorer Europeans immigrants were processed at this New York location
Angel Island After 1910, Asians generally were processed on this island in San Francisco.
agricultural overproduction one of the problems that farmers faced was the large amounts of land to farm. Crop production increased causing prices to fall.
international competition one of the problems that farmers faced was crop production in other neighboring countries
middlemen these individuals would act between the farmer and the market concerning prices of crops and shipping. They had a lot of freedom to charge the farmer what they wanted.
high shipping costs one of the problems that farmers faced was the cost of moving their crops (mostly on railroads)
deflation occurs when prices fall in an open market
inflation occurs when prices of goods rise in an open market
Sherman Silver Purchase Act required the federal government to purchase a large amount of silver each month.
The Grange a national association of farmers's social clubs
Granger Laws laws to regulate the railroad and grain storage
Munn v. Illinois The Supreme Court case that supported the Grange Laws. The court ruled that a state government could regulate a private utility if that utility was serving the public interest
Wabash St. Louis & Pacific Railroad v. Illinois This Supreme Court case held that state governments could not regulate railroads running through more than one state. Only Congress has that power.
Interstate Commerce Act (1887) It prohibited giving different rates to different customers for hauling freight the same distance. It also banned price fixing agreements
Interstate Commerce Commission it was created to investigate complaints against railroads and to enforce the act itself.
The Populist Party the People's Party with the goal of controlling rich industrialists and bankers.
Omaha Platform the Populist Party (farmers) convention where ideas became future laws concerning pro-farmers legislation and political positions.
bimetallism a system allowing the unrestricted currency of two metals (e.g., gold and silver) as legal tender at a fixed ratio to each other
William Jennings Bryan he was the Populist Party nomination for President of the United States. He wrote the famous "Cross of Gold" speech
Cross of Gold speech it exalted the farmer while denouncing banking and big business owners. Man would be crucified upon a cross of gold.