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Parasitic Infections

Infectious Disease

Amebiasis (Entamoeba histolytica) pathology Commensal amoeba. Immigrants, communal living, MSM. Humans only hosts, insects vectors. Excysted in small intestine -> trophs invade large intestine -> ulcers
Primary site of extra-intestinal amebic disease is: Liver (form abscesses up to 15cm). May also disseminate to lung, pleura, pericardium, brain
Watery stools with blood, later with necrotic tissue; high fever, tenesmus, N/V are sxs of: Amebic dysentery
Copious, fould smelling, frothy diarrhea +/- blood or pus is sx of: Giardiasis
Plasmodium life cycle Anopheles mosquito ingests blood with gametocytes -> sporozoites -> infect human -> merozoites in liver -> bloodstream & RBCs -> schizogamy (sexual & asexual forms)
Plasmodium forms that produce dormant hepatic sporozoites that cause relaspse P vivax & P ovale
Malaria clinical features High fevers, rigors, diaphoresis, HSM, attacks Q2-3 days.
Toxoplasma gondii forms Obligate intracellular parasite. Disease-causing troph, latent cyst, infective sporozoite-containing oocysts
In PCP pts, recurrent PTX is related to: prior pentamidine use
Most common intestinal helminth worldwide: Ascaris
Ascaris life cycle Eggs – larvae in sm intestine => bloodstream => R heart => lung => bronchi – swallowed => intestine
Frothy, clear-white or yellow-green to gray adherent vaginal discharge, dysuria, vaginal pruritis. Vulvar / cervical erythema. Flagellated protozoa Trichomonas
Leading cause of CHF in Latin America Chaga disease (T cruzi). Vector assassin bug, active in evening.
Trypanosomiasis (Chaga) clinical features Acute illness 3 wks-3 months with fever, unilateral periorbital edema, LAD, HSM
Trypanosomiasis tx Nifurtimox PO QID x90-120 days
African sleeping sickness bug Trypanosoma brucei
Created by: Abarnard