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NAU A&P 11

NAU The Nervous System 2

QuestionAnswer
System for information and communication Nervous System
2 Structural division of the nervous system Central Nervous System (CNS) & Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Any tissue or organ that carries out a command from the nervous system. Effector
Portion of the neuron that transmits impulses from the spinal cord and brain. Efferent or Motor Neuron
Portion of the neuron that transmits impulses to the spinal cord and brain. Afferent or Sensory Neuron
Layers of protection for the brain, starting with the outside. Dura Mater, Arachnoid, Subarachnoid, Pia Mater
Connective tissue, no epithelial cells, that covers nervous tissue. Meninges
Tough, leather covering, just underneath the skull and houses blood vessels. Dura Mater
On the outside of the Dura Mater, separates the two halves of the brain and is anchored to the Cristi Galli Falx Cerebri
Cobwebish netting just below the Dura Mater Arachnoid
Space below the arachnoid layer, which allows the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Sub-arachnoid
Innermost layer, lays right on the surface of the brain. Pia Mater
Occurs when the brain hits against the cranial cavity hard. Degree of damage is related to the degree of swelling. Concussion
Creates a pathway in one direction as a shock absorber, nutrient and waste flow, creates blood brain barrier. Allows nicotine, alcohol, anesthesia and drugs. Cerebrospinal Fluid
Produces the Cerebrospinal Fluid Choroids Plexus
Spaces within the brain which allow the flow of CSF. Ventricles
Name the ventricles of the brain 2 Lateral ventricles, Third ventricle, Fourth ventricle, Cerebral Aqueduct and Interventricular Foramen
2 ventricles, one located in each hemisphere Lateral Ventricles
The slit between the left and right halves of the thalamus and between the lateral ventricles Third Ventricle
Lies between the inferior brain stem and the cerebellum. Fourth Ventricle
Allows communication between the third and fourth ventricles Cerebral Aqueduct
Allows communication between the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle. Interventricular Foramen
Helps keep the Cerebrospinal Fluid flowing in one direction Epidemyal Cells
Only system of nervous tissue that will regenerate in adulthood. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Myelinated fibers within the Central Nervous System Tracks
Myelinated fibers within the Peripheral Nervous System Nerves
Is unmyelinated tissue. Open and free communication, so neurons can communicate with one another. Grey Matter
Myleinated tissue, that has walls and no free communication between the neurons. White Matter
Organization of the spinal consists of: Sensory neuron or Ascending Afferent Track, Dorsal Horn, Ventral Horn, Motor Response or Efferent
Grey Matter or myelinated matter consists of: Dorsal Horn, Ventral Horn, Gray Commissure
Takes ascending tracks to CNS and is then determined by spinal cord if the information is important to be taken to the brain Sensory Neuron
Received through ascending tracks, is sensory information Dorsal Horn
Takes through descending tracks, motor division includes the efferent (gland, nerve or muscle) Ventral Horn
Reflex Arc consists of: Receptor, Sensory Neuron or Afferent or Ascending track, CNS receives information into Dorsal Horn and back out through the Ventral Horn, Motor neuron or descending track or efferent, and the Effector
The largest portion of the brain that consists of gyri and sulci . Is covered by the cerebral cortex and is divided into left and right hemispheres. Cerebrum
Lumps of the brain Gyri
Grooves of the brain Sulci
Lobes of the Cerebrum consists of: One Frontal Lobe, Two Parietal Lobes, Two Temporal Lobes, One Occipital Lobe and the Insula
Lobe named for the bone it is under. Primary motor cortex and contains the brocha. Stroke will not allow movement of the mouth. Frontal Lobe
Motor Speech area of the Frontal Lobe Brocha
Two lobes named for the bones they are under. Main sensory cortex. Parietal Lobes
Two lobes named for the bones they are under. Auditory area and contains Wernicke’s. Temporal Lobe
Speech and language comprehension area of the temporal lobe. Wernicke’s
Lobe named for the bone it is under. The Visual cortex. Stroke in this area will cause blindness. Occipital Lobe
The lobe that fills in the blanks, located under the frontal lobe. Insula
This band of white matter forms a crossover bridge for communication and holds the 2 halves or hemispheres of the brain together. Corpus Callosum
Clusters of grey matter or myelinated masses within the cerebral hemispheres that function to regulate body movement and muscles of facial expression. Basal Nuclei or Basal Ganglia
Four major divisions of the brain: Central Sulcus, Lateral Sulcus, Transverse Fissure, Longitudinal Fissure
Separates the Frontal Lobe form the Parietal Lobes. Central Sulcus
Separates the Temporal Lobe from the Parietal Lobes and Frontal Lobe. Lateral Sulcus
Fissure that separates the cerebrum from the parietal and frontal lobes. Transverse Fissure
Deep fissure that runs the entire length of the brain and separates the brain into left and right hemispheres. Longitudinal Fissure
Structural Divisions of the Brain: Cerebrum, Diencephalon, Brain Stem and Cerebellum
Area between the cerebrum and brain stem. Diencephalon
Greek for the inner room. In charge of editing your body. Gateway to the cortex, relays information, tones down information and edits information. Thalamus
Below thalamus. Regulates many functions of the visceral organs, maintains homeostasis and controls endocrine system, part of the Limbic system. Also links the conscious functions of the cerebral cortex with the automatic function of the brain stem. Hypothalamus
Involved in emotional states and behavior. Increases endorphins and enkephalins associated with eating chocolate and having sex. Limbic System
Connects the cerebrum and diencephalons with the spinal cord. Is the area involved with the innervations of the face and head. Produces automatic behaviors necessary for survival. Brain stem
Diencephalon consists of: Thalamus and Hypothalamus
Makes up brain stem: Midbrain, Medulla Oblongata and Pons
Superior portion of the brain stem. Contains reflexes concerning vision and hearing. Controls eyes closing when sneezing. Midbrain
Helps regulate respiration. Pons
Between the pons and spinal cord, centers for respiration control, heartbeat and vasometer functions. Important for regulation of blood pressure and blood flow. Medulla Oblongata
Below the posterior portion of the cerebrum. Responsible for the coordination of voluntary muscles. Maintains balance and muscle tone. Portion susceptible to alcohol. Cerebellum
Distinct regions of the skin surface that are supplied by a single spinal nerve. Dermatone
Pustule coming from dermatonal nerves. Shingles
Clusters of nerves. Plexus
Network of capillaries that lie in the third ventricle and produces CSF. Choroids Plexus
Tar-like substance that coats axons and dendrites in the brain. Alzheimer’s Disease
Is associated with Parkinson’s disease or any kind of repetitive nerve function damage. Substantia nigra
Twelve cranial nerves in order: Olfactory, Optic, Oculomotor, Trochlear, Trigeminal, Abducens, Facial, Vestibulocochlear, Glossopharyngeal, Vagus, Spinal Accessory, Hypoglossal
12 Cranial Nerves and what they do in order: Olfactory-Sensory, Optic-Sensory, Oculomotor-Motor, Trochlear-Motor, Trigeminal-Both, Abducens-Motor, Facial-Both, Vestibulocochlear-Sensory, Glossopharyngeal-Both, Vagus-both, Spinal Accessory-Motor, Hypoglossal-Motor
Nerve located in the neck. Cervical Plexus
Nerve located in the musculature of the arm. Bracchial Plexus
Nerve located in the lower extremities and pelvic region. Lumbar Plexus or Lumbosacral Plexus
Disorder of the brain: Hydrocephalus, Cerebral Palsy, Tumors, Alzheimer’s, Stroke or Cerebrovascular accident, Epilepsy, Concussion and Parkinson’s
Types of Brain Scans: CT, MRI, PET and EET or electroencephalograph
Provide photos of the bone, soft tissue and cavities of the brain. CT or Computed Tomography
Gives more view of the brain than CT and may reveal tumors or etc.. MRI or Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Visualizes brain activity. PET or Positron Emission Topography
Electrically tracts brain activity based on signals produced during brain function. EEG or Electroencephalograph
Divisions of Sensory or Afferent Information: Somatic Sensory and Visceral Sensory
Divisions of Visceral Sensory and Visceral Motor Information: Automatic and Voluntary
Divisions of Motor Information: Somatic Motor and Visceral Motor Information
Divisions of Automatic Visceral Sensory and Automatic Visceral Motor Information: Sympathetic-Stimulatory or Parasympathetic
Voluntary Visceral Sensory Information: Touch, Pain, Pressure, Vibration and Temperature
Automatic Visceral Sensory Information: Stretching, Pain, Temperature, Chemical Changes & Visceral irritations such as nausea and hunger
Voluntary Visceral Motor Information: Motor innervations of all skeletal muscles except pharyngeal arch muscles
Automatic Visceral Motor Information: Motor innervations of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
Created by: FKrouse