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Chapter 4 CB


What is Tissue? A group of cells that function together to carry out specialized activities.
Histology? The science that deals with the study of tissues.
What are 4 types of body tissue? Epithelial, Connective, Muscular, Nervous
What is Epithelial Tissue? Covers body surface, lines hollow organs and body cavities. It also forms glands.
What is Connective Tissue? It protects and supports the body and its functions.
What is the function of Connective Tissue? Various types bind organs together, stores energy reserves as fat and help provide immunity to disease-causing organisms.
What is Muscular Tissue? It makes body structures move and generates body heat.
What is Nervous Tissue? detects change inside and outside the body, generates nerve impulses, activates muscular contracts and glandular secretions.
Epithelial Tissues develop from what? The three primary germ layers, ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm.
Connective Tissues and most muscle tissues derive from what? Mesoderm.
What do nervous tissues derive from? ectoderm.
What are the contact points between the plasma membranes of tissue cells? Cell junctions.
What are tight junctions and how are they used? Consist of weblike strands of transmembrane proteins that fuese the outer surface of ajacent plasma membrains together to seal off passageways between adjacent cells.
How are tight junctions used in the epithelial tisssues? Epithelial cells that line the stomach, intestines and urinary bladder have many tight junctions to retard the passage of substances between tghe cells and prevent the contents of these organs from leaking into the blood surrounding the tissues.
What are Adherens Junctions? Belts of plaque that contain proteins on the inside of the plasma membrane that attaches both to membrane proteins and to micofilaments of the cytoskeleton.
What transmembrane glycoproteins join the cells together? cadherins. Each cadherin inserts into the plaque from the opposite side of the plasma membrane, partially crosses the intercellular space and connect to cadherins of an adjacent cell.
What are adhesion belts? In epithelial cells, adheren junctions often form extensive zones called adhesion belts and encircle the cell.
What are Desmosomes? They hold muscle tissue together. They attach to elements of the cytoskeleton known as an intermediate filament that consist of the protein keratin.
What are Hemidesmosomes? :They anchor cells to the basement membrane. On the inside of the plasma membrane intgrins attach to intermediate filaments made of protein keritin and on the outside of the plasma membrane integrines attach to laminin.
What are Gap junctions? Membrane proteins called connexins from tiny fluid-filled tunnels called connexons that connect cells allowing substances to pass from one cell to another. The transfer of nutrients and perhaps wast takes place through gap junctions in avascular tissues.
What is the apical(free)surface of an epithelial cell? Faces the body surface, , a body cavity, the lumen(interior space) of an internal organ, or a tubular duct that receives cell secretion. Apical survace may contain cilia or microvilli.
What are the three major functions of an Epithelial tissue? 1) selective barrier that limit or aid in the transfer of substances into and out of the body;2)secretory surfaces that release products produced by the cells into their free surfaces; and 3) protective.
What is the lateral surface of a epithelial cell? They face the adjacent cells on either side. They may contain tight junctions, adherens junctions, desmosomes and/or gap junctions.
What is the basal surface of an epithelial cell? The basal surfaces of the deepest layer of cells adhere to extracellular materials. Hemidesmosomes (the anchor cells) are found anchor the epithelium tp the basement extracellular membrane.
What is a basement membrane? It is a thin extracellular layer that commonly consists of two layers, the basal lamina and reticular lamina. It serves as a point of attachment and support for the overlying epithelial tissue.
What disease is connected to the basement membrane? diabetes mellitus.
Is Epithelial tissue vascular(have its own blood supply)? No. Epithelial tissue is avascular. It has its own nerve supply but the blood vessels that bring in nutrients and remove wastes are located in the connective tissue. Exchange of substances between the epithelium & connective tissue occurs by difussion.
What is Simple epithelium? A single layer of cells that functions in diffusion, osmosis, filootration, secretion, or absorption.
What is secretion? The production of and release of substances such as mucus, sweat or enzymes.
Absorption? the instake of fluids or other sustances such as digestede food from the intestinal tract.
What is psudostratified epithelium? Appears to have multiple layers of cells because the cell nuclei lie at different levels and not all cells reach the apical surface. Cells do not extend to the apical surface may contain cilia; others (goblet cells) secrete mucus. Only one layer.
Stratified epithelium? Consist of two or more layers of cells that protect underlying tissues in locations where there is considerable wear and tear.
Squamous cells? Flat, thin, look like floor tiles, allow for rapid passage of substances.
Cuboidal cells? Tall as wide (cube shape) or hexagons. They may hgave microvilli at their apical surface and function in either secretion or absorption.
Columnar cells? Much taller than wide,columns, which protect underlying tissues. Their apical surfaces may have cilia or microvilli, and they often are specialized for secretion and absorption.
Transition cells? Where are they Found? Cells that change shape from flat to cuboidal and back, as organs such as urinary bladder streetch to a larger size and then collapse to a smaller size.
What is Simple Squamous Epithelium? Single layer tissue resembles a tilefd floor . Nucleus of each cell is a flatted oval or sphere and cntgrally located. Found in processes of blood filtration in kidneys and diffusion of oxygen into blood vessels of the lungs.
What is endothelium? Simple squamous epithelium that lines the heart,bloodvessels and lympahatic vessels.
What is mesothelium? Simple squamous epithelium that fors the epithelial layer of serous membranes such as the pericardium, pleura or peritoneum.
What is Simple Cubodial Epithelium? Cuboidal shape cells with round and centrally located nuclei. Found in organs such as the thyroid gland and kidneys and performs the functions of secretion and absorption.
What is Simple Columnar Epithelium? Columns with oval nuclei near the base. It exists in two forms: non-ciliated simple columnar epithelial and ciliated which are namely microvilli and goblet cells.
What are Microvilli? Fingerlike cytoplasmic projects that increase the surface area of the plasma membrane thus increasing the rate of absorption by the cell.
Goblet Cells? Modified columnar epithelial cells that secret mucus, a sticky fluid, at their apical surfaces. Lubricant for the linings of the digestive, respiratory & reproductive tracts and most of the urinary tract. Protects stomach from gastric acid.
Where is ciliated simple columnar epithelium contained? Found in the smaller airways of the respiratory tract. The cilia beat in unison moving foreign particles toward the throat where they can be coughed up and swalled or spit out. Cilia also found in ovaries that help move oocytes through the uterine tube.
Stratified Epithelium? Have two or more layers of cells. Some also produce secretions. More durable.
Kerantinized stratified squamous cells? The apical layer and several layers deep to it are partially dehydrated and contain a layer of keratin, a tough, fibrous protein that protect the skin and underlying tissues from heat, microbes and chemicals.
What is keratin? A tough fibrous protein that helps protect the skin and underlying tissues from heat, microbes and chemicals. Forms the superficial layer of the skin.
Nonkerantinized stratified squamous epithelium? Found in the mouth and esophagus, does not contain keratin in the apical layer and several layers deep to it and remains moist.
Stratified Cuboidal epithelium? Fairly rare type of epithelium in which cells in the apical layer are cuboidal. Serves as a protective function, but also has a limited role in secretion and absorption.
Stratified Columnar epithelium? Is uncommon, the apical layer has cells that are columnar in shape. This type of epithelium functions in protection and secretion.
Transitional Epithelium? A type of stratified epithelium is present only in the urinary system and has a variable appearance. Looks cuboidal in relaxed mode and squamous when stretched. It has elasticity.
What's a gland? Consists of a single cell or a group of cells that secrete substances into ducts (tubes) onto a surface or into the blood.
endocrine glands' function? Enter the interstitial fluid and then diffuse directly into the bloodstream without flowing through a duct. They secrete hormones and regulate many metabolic and physiological activities to maintain homeostasis.
Examples of endocrine glands? pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands.
Exocrine Glands' function? They secrete their products into ducts that empty onto the surface of a covering and lining of epithelium such as the skin or the lumen of a hollow organ.
What do Exocrine glands secrete? Mucus, sweat, oil, earwax, saliva, and digestive enzyemes.
Are Exocrine glands classified as unicellular or multicellular? Both unicellular and multicellular.
What are unicellular glands? Are singled celled. Goblet cells are an example.
What are multicellular glands? Composed of many cells that form a distinctive microscopic structure or macroscopic organ. Examples include sudoriferous, sebaceous and salivery glands.
How are multicellular glands catagorized? These glands are catorized by wherther their ducts are branched or unbranched and the shape of the secretory portions of the gland.
How can you tell a simple gland? The duct of the gland does not branch.
How can you tell a compound gland? The duct branches.
What are tubular glands? Glands with tubular secretory parts.
What are acinar glands? Those with rounded secretory portions.
What are merocine glands? Glands that are synthesized on ribosomes attached to rough ER; processed, sorted and packed by the Golgi complex; and released from the cell in secretory vesicles via exocytosis. Most exocrine glands of body including salivery glands and pancreas.
What are apocrine glands? The glands accumulate their secretory product at the apical surface of the secreting cell. That portion of the cell pinches off from the rest of the cell to release the secretion. The remaining part of the cell repairs itself and repeats the process.
What are holocrine glands? Their cells accumulate a secretory product in their cytosol. As the secretory cell matures, it ruptures and become the secretory product. The sloughed off cell is replaced by a new cell. Example is sebaceous gland of the skin.
What is connective tissue? Most abundant and widely distributed tissues in the body. It binds together, supports and strengthens other body tissues; protects and insulates internal organs; compartmentalizes structures such as skeletal muscles; serves as the major transport.
What is stored in connective tissue? The primary location of stored energy reserves (adipose or fat, tissue); and is the main source of immune responses.
What two things does Connective Tissue consist of? Consists of extracellular matrix and cells.
What is extracellular matrix? The material located between its eidely spaced cells which consists of protein fibers and ground substance, the material between the cells and the fibers.
What are fibroblasts? Large, flat cells with branching processes. They are present in several connective tissues and are usually the most numerous.
What are Adipocytes? Fat cells, are connective tissue cells that store triglycerides (fats). They are found deep to the skin and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.
What are Mast cells? Abundant alojngside the blood vessels that supply connective tissue. They produce histamine, a chemmical that dilates mall blood vessels as part of the inflammatory response, the body's reaction to injury or infection. They bind to,ingest, kill bacteria.
What are White Blood cells? Neutrophils gather at sites of infedction, and eosinophils migrate to sites of parasitic invasions and allergic responses.
What are macophages? Develop from monocytes, type of white blood cell. They have irregular shape with short branching projections and are capable of engulfing bacteria and cellular debris by phagocytosis.
What are plasma cells? Small cells that develop from a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte. Cell secrete antibodies, proteins that attach a neutralize foreign substances in the body.
Ground substance? The component of connective tissue between the cells and fibers. Can be fluid, semifluid, gelatinous,or calcified. Supports cells, binds them together, stores water, provides a medium through which substances are exchanged between the blood and cells.
glycosaminoglycans or GAGs? They trap water, making the ground substance more jellylike.
Hyaluronic acid? A viscous, slippery substance that binds cells together, lubricates joints and helps maintain the shape of the eyeballs.
What is Chondroitin sulfate? Provides support and adhesiveness in cartilage,bone, skin, and blood vessels.
Where is dermatan sulfate found? The skin, blood vessels, and heart valves.
What contains keratan sulfate? bone, cartilage and the cornea of the eye
What are proteglycans? Large molecules which are associated with GAGs which consists of a core protein and GAGS that project from the protein like the bristles of a bottle brush.
What do adhesion proteins do? Responsible for linking components of the ground substance to one another and then to the surfaces of cells.
What are fibronectin? The main adhesion protein of connective tissu which binds to both collagen fibers and ground substance linking them together.
What are the three types of fibers? collagen, elatic and reticular
How are Collagen fibers? Very strong and resistant to pulling forces. Found in connective tissues, especially bone, cartilage, tyendons and ligaments.
How are Elastic fibers? Smaller in diameter than collagen fibers, branch and join together to form a network. They add strength and stability. Found in skin, blood vessel walls and lung tissue.
What do Reticular fibers do? Consisting of collagen arranged in fine bundles with a coating of glycoprotein, provide support in the walls of blood vessels and forma a network around the cells in some tissues.
What is Marfan syndrome? An inherited disorder caused by a defective fibrillin gene. Usually have very long arms and legs, fingers and toes. Abe Lincoln had this disease. They have blurred vision caused by displacement of the lens of the eye. Has a weakening of the aorta.
What are the types of mature connective tissue? 1)loose(2)dense(3)cartilage(4) beon(5 liquid connective tissue.
What does Areolar connective Tissue Do? Combined with adipose tissue forms the sunbcutaneous lalyer, the layer of tissue that attaches the skin to underlying tissues and organs.
What is Adipose Tissue? A loose connective tissue in which the cells called adipocytes are specialized for storage of triglycerides (fats). It is a good inlator and can therefore reduce heat loss through the skin.
What does Reticular connective tissue do? Forms the stroma (supporting framework) of the liver, spleen and lymph noes and helps bind together smooth muscle cells.
Where is reticular connective tissue found? Found in spleen where blood is filter and worn-out blood cells are removed and found in lymph nodes where they filter lymph and remove bacteria.
What are the three types of Dense Connective tissue? dense regular, dense irregular and elastic connective tissue.
What is dense regular connective tissue? Bundles of collagen fibers are regularly arranged in parrallel patterns that provide the tissue with great strength.Examples: tendons and most ligaments.
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue: Found in parts of the bodily where pulling forces are exerted in various directions. Examples, heart valves, the perichondrium and periosteum (tissue surrounding bone).
What is elastic connective tissue? Consist of branching elastic fibers. It is quite strong and it can recoil to its original shape after being stretched.
What is interstitial growth? Chondrocytes divide and form new matrix. Occures in childhood and adolescence.
What is appositional growth? Chondroblasts secrete matrix onto the surface and produces increase in width.
What are bones? Organs that are composed of several different connective tissues, including bone or ossesous tissue, the periosteum, red and yellow bone marrow and the endosteum (a memberane that lines the space within a bone that stores yellow blood marrow.)
What is the basic unit of an compact bone? Osteon or haversian system.
What are the four parts of the osteon? the lamellae, lacunae, canaliculi and central haversian canal.
What is the function of bone (osseous) Tissue? Protects, provides for movement, stores minerals (not vitamins) and is a site of blood cell formation. Bones protect thorasic cavity and skull. Bones are flexible.
What is lamellae? Concentric rings of extracellular matrix that const of mineral salts (mostly calcium and phosphates ) which gtive bone its hardness and collagen fiber which give bone its strength.
What is lacunae? Small smaces btween lamellae that contain mature bone cells called osteocytes.
What is canaliculi? Networks of minute canals containg the process processes of osteocyts. They provide routes for nutrients to reach osteocytes and for waste to leave them.
What is the central (haversian) canal? Contains blood vessels and nerves.
Spongy bone consists of what? Columns of bone called trabeculae whicdh contain lamellae, osteocyes, lacunae and canaliculi. Spaces between cells are filled with red bone marrow.
What is the difference between spongy bone and compact bone? Spongy bones have trabeculae and compact bons have osteons.
What is liquid connective tissue? Blood. Blood tissue is a connective tissue with a liquid extracellular matrixd called blood plasma.
What does blood plasma consist of? A pale yellow fluid that is mostly water with a wide variety of dissolved substances-nutrients, wastes, enzymes, plasma proteins, hormones, respiratory gases and ions.
What is the function of red blood cells (erythrocytes)? Do not have a nucleous. Transport oxygen to the body and remove some carbon dioxide.
What is the function of White blood cells (leukocytes)? Where DNA comes from. Involed in phagocytosis, immunity, and allergic reactions.
What function do platelets (thrombocytes) have? Participate in blood clotting by forming fibers.
What is lymph? The extracellular fluid that flows in lymphatic vessels. It is a connective tissue that consistes of several types of cells in a clear liquid extracellular matrix that is similar to blood plasma but much less protein.
What are Membranes? Flat sheets of pliable tissue that cover or line a party of the body. Lining or organ.
What is an epithelial membrane? The combination of an epithelial layer and an underllying connective tissue layer. They are mucous membranes, serous membranes and the cutaneous membrane or skin.
What is a synovial membrane? Lines joints and contains connective tissue but no epithelium.
What is the function of a mucous membrane or mucosa? It lines a body cavity that opens directly to the exterior. Line the entire digestive, respiratoryu, and reproductive tract as well as the urinary tract. Goblet cells.
What is the connective tissue layer of a mucous membrane called? The lamina propria. It supports the epithelium, binds it to the underllying structures and allows some flexibility to the membrane. It holds blood vessels in place and affords protection.
What is the function of a serous membrane? Lines a body cavity (thoracic and abdominal) that does not open directly to the exterior and it covers the organs that loie within the cavity. Consists of areolar connective tissue coverede by mesothelium simple squamous epithelium).
What are the two layers of the serous membrane? The parietal (wall) and the visceral layer which layer covers and adheres to the organs within the cavity.
What is an inflamation of serous membranes? Pleurisy, peritonitis or pericarditis.
What is the cutaneous membrane? Skin which covers the entire sure of the body and consistes of a superficial portion called the epidermis and a deeper portion called the dermis.
What does epidermis consist of? Kertaninized stratified squamous epithellium which protects the underlying tissues.
What does the dermis consist of? Consists of connective tissue (areolar connective tissue and dense irregular connective tissue).
What does muscle tissue consiste of? Elongated cells called muscle fibers or myocytes that can use ATP to generate force and produces body movement, maintains posture, and generates heat. Also provides protection.
What are the three types of muscular tissue? skeletal, cardia, and smooth.
Where is skeletal muscle tissue found? Attached to the bones of the skeleton. It has striations and is considered to be boluntary because it can be made to contract or relax by consious control.
Cardiac Muscle tissue is found where? Forms most of the heart wall, is striated and is usually involuntary.
Where is smooth muscle tissue found? Found in the walls of hollow interanal structures (blood vessesl and viscera) is nonstriated and is usually involuntary.It provides motion. (constriction of blood vessels & airways, propulsion of food & contraction of the urinary bladder, gallbladder.
What two principal cells does nerve tissue consist of? Neurons and neuroglia.
What is the function of Neurons? Nerve cells are sensitive to various stimuli. They converst stimuli into electricdal signals called action potentials (nerve impulses) and conduct these action potentials to other neurons, to muscle tissue or to glands.
What do neurons consist of? A cell body and two kinds of cell processes - dendrites and axons.
What does the cell body contain in the neuron? Contains nucleus and other organelles.
What are dendrites? Are tapering, highly branched and usually short cells processes (extensions). They are the major receiving or input portion of a neuron.
What is the axon of a neuron? A single, thin, cylinderical process that may be very longt. It is the output portion of neuron, conmducting nerve impules toward another neuron or to some other tissue.
What are excitable cells? Neurons and muscle fibers. They show electrical excitability (action potentials). Both carry electrical signal.
Created by: cblaha



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