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A&P - Chapter

nose external portion composed of cartilage and bone (nostrils = nares)
paranasal sinuses cavities within the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity
pharynx throat - connects mouth and nose to larynx
nasopharynx part of pharynx - behind the nose - contains adenoids
oropharynx part of pharynx - behind the mouth - contains palatine tonsils
laryngopharynx part of pharynx - behind the larynx
larynx voice box - connects pharynx with trachea
trachea windpipe - extends into the chest - passageway for air to bronchi contains cartilage
bronchi tubes that branch of from trachea to lungs
bronchioles smallest branches of bronchi
alveoli air sacs at the end of bronchioles - allow for exchange of gases between lungs and blood via capillaries
lungs two cone-shaped spongy organs - left has two lobes, right has three lobes (apex=top, base=bottom, hilum=midline)
pleura double folded membrane that surrounds the lungs
parietal pleura outer layer - lines thoracic cavity
visceral pleura inner layer - covers the lungs
pleural space small space between pleural membranes
epiglotis small flap that covers larynx so food cannot pass into airway when swallowing
inhalation inspiration - diaphragm contracts and flattens
exhalation expiration - diaphragm relaxes and rises
eupena good breathing
inspection observation - visual examination
palaption touch - examination by application of hands of fingers
auscultation listening with a stethoscope
percussion tapping with fingertips
apena without breathing
bradypnea slow breathing - slower than 12 rpm
cough forceful expiratory effort due to irritation of airways nonproductive - dry cough, productive - wet cough
cyanosis blue discoloration
dysphonia difficulty speaking - hoarseness
dyspnea difficulty breathing
epistaxis nosebleed - aka rhinorrhagia
expectoration act of spitting out saliva or coughing to clear out passageway to lungs
hemoptysis expectoration of blood - coughing up blood
hypoxemia insufficient O2 in the blood leads to hypoxia = deficiency of oxygen
hypercapnia increased amount of CO2 in blood
Kussmaul respirations deep, gasping respiration associated with diabetic acidosis
orthopnea patient needs to be in standing or sitting position to avoid dyspnea
pleural rub friction rub caused by inflammation of pleural space - auscultation = rubbing
rales produced by passage of air through bronchi heard on inhalation - auscultation = crackling
rhinorrhea runny nose
rhonchi produced by passage of air through obstructed airways - auscultation = rattling (resembles snoring)
sneeze expelling air forcibly through the nose
stridor high-pitched, harsh sound during inhalation due to obstruction of air passages - heard w/out stethoscope
tachypnea rapid breathing
wheeze whistling sound resulting from narrowing of lumen - heard during exhalation w/out stethoscope
coryza common cold - upper respiratory tract infection
croup barking cough in children due to obstruction of larynx
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx resulting in hoarseness
pertussis whooping cough
pharyngitis sore throat
asthma paroxysmal (happens intermittently) dyspnea accompanied by wheezing - caused by spasm of bronchial tubes
bronchogenic carcinoma lung cancer
emphysema chronic pulmonary disease - exhalation is difficult (caused by smoking)
empyema pus in pleural cavity
RDS respiratory distress syndrome aka hyaline membrane disease
pneumonia inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses and chemical irritants
pneumothorax air or gas in plueral cavity - causes collapsed lung
SIDS sudden infant death syndrome
thoracentesis surgical puncture to collect pleural fluid
PPD purified protein derivative aka tuberculin skin test (TST)
hyperventilation rapid (tachypnea) deep breathing - creates low levels of CO2 in blood
bronchoscopy instrument to view interior of bronchi
asymptomatic without symptoms
sputum mucous coughed up from lungs, bronchi, trachea through mouth
PFTs pulmonary function tests
Created by: gcjlentz
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