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Chapter 26

Fluid, Electrolyte, Acid-Base Balance

which compartment has the largest volume of water? ICF
the most intracellular electrolyte is potassium
the most abundant extracellular electrolyte is sodium
what hormone helps excrete & get rid of sodium? ANP
which compartment has the smallest volume of water? plasma
the type of fluid that varies the most is water loss in urine
the ___ drains blood from the glomereular capillaries efferent arteriole
least abundant ion in interstitial fluid? calcium
driving force for water intake? thirst mechanism
osmolality measures the body's... water balance & electrolytes
this type of water loss is unavoidable. water leaves the body via skin or lungs. obligatory water loss
sensible water loss consist of.... sweat, urine, feces
baroreceptors detect... pressure changes
rising BP causes vasodilation which leads to... water loss
lowering BP causes vasoconstriction which... conserves sodium & water
female sex hormones increase renal retention of sodium. they also... enhance sodium & water excretion in urine
which hormone promotes sodium reabsorption to maintain blood volume & pressure? aldosterone
ANP inhibits which hormones release? aldosterone. ADH. renin
excess potassium can .... decrease action potential - leads to depolarization
not enough potassium can cause ___ nonresponsiveness
potassium is required for... neuromuscular junction
too much or too little potassium can... interrupt heart's electrical activity - can lead to death
reabsorption of calcium occurs in which tubule? DCT
calcium is regulated by ___ PTH
what is alkalosis? blood pH over 7.45
when a blood pH is 7.35 and under, it is referred to as_ acidosis
how do we regulate acidosis & alkalosis? chemical buffers. brain stem respiratory centers. renal mechanisms.
chemical buffers are activated... instanteously
how long does it take brain stem respiratory centers to activate? within minutes
this type of regulation takes a couple of hours to a day to regulate.. renal mechanism
the renal mechanism is able to make.... the biggest changes
respiratory acidosis has... low pH & low CO2 partial pressures
respiratory alkalosis has a ___ and __ high pH & high CO2 partial pressure
when too much carbon dioxide has been accumulated...it is known as ___ respiratory acidosis
shallow breathing is apart of respiratory __ acidosis
when you exhale too much air too quickly, it can lead to hyperventilation which is referred to as ___ ___ respiratory alkalosis
this type of pH imbalance has a low pH and bicarbonate level. metabolic acidosis
in metabolic alkalosis, the pH and bicarbonate levels are... high
___ and __ are causes of metabolic alkalosis vomiting - ingestion of antacids
excess alcohol ingestion, excessive loss of HCO3, accumulation of lactic acid, ketosis, kidney failure happens due to the result of... metabolic acidosis
Created by: Mariahj25