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Tissues & Glands

General info

What is a tissue? a collection of similar cells and the intercellular substances surrounding them
What are the four basic tissues in the body? epithelium, connective, muscle, nerve
What is epithelial tissue? consists of sheets of cells, classified according to # of cell layers and the morphology of the surface cells; these cells form glands and line all body surfaces, cavities, and ducts
Where do simple epithelial cells rest? on a thin layer called a basement membrane; stratified epithelium do not have one for each layer of cells
What are simple, stratified, and psuedo-stratified epithelial tissues? Simple - single layer of cells; stratified - sheets of cells layers on top of each other; pseudo-stratified-appearance of layers (nuclei at different heights)
What do cilia do? Provide movement, especially of mucus
What does PCCE stand for? pseudo-stratified, ciliated, columnar epithelium
What do goblet cells do? Produce mucus
How can you identify transitional epithelium? lower layer of columnar cells; upper layer of cuboidal cells
What type of epithelium would be indicated if cilia were identified? Pseudo-stratified
What is the epithelium that surrounds blood vessels called? endothelium
What is the epithelium that is found in serous membranes called? mesothelium
What is glandular epithelium? It lines or cover glands (glands secrete something)
What are the 3 types of glands? exocrine glands, endocrine glands, mixed glands
Describe exocrine glands and give some examples they release their products through ducts to the surface; examples are sweat glands, saliva glands, and the exocrine pancreas (digestive enzymes)
Describe endocrine glands and give some examples: they release their products directly into the bloodstream (insulin, glucagon); examples are the pituitary gland, testis, ovaries, endocrine pancreas, and the hypothalamus
What are mixed glands and what is an example mixed glands have functions of both endocrine and exocrine glands; the only example is the pancreas
What are the 3 modes of gland secretion? Holocrine, eccrine, and appocrine
What is secretion? the contents of the cell are released
What is holocrine secretion? the cell is destroyed in the process, replaced by new cells from beneath; e.g. sebaceous glands (oil) of the skin
What is eccrine secretion? the cell remains intact; e.g. salivary glands, sweat glands, exocrine glands of pancreas
What is apocrine secretion? the apex pinches off and is repaired afterwards; e.g. milk secretion from the mammary glands
Created by: debmurph