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Chapter 25

The Urinary System

what are some of the functions of the kidney? filters fluid from our blood, regulates water volume & osmolality, produice renin, helps with acid/base balance
when people take blood pressure pills...why do they urinate a lot? they're getting rid of blood volume in hopes to lower BP
renal fascia outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue - anchors kidney & adrenal glands
perirenal fat capsule fatty mass that surrounds kidneys - cushions it against blows
fibrous capsule prevents infections in surrounding regions of kidney
temporary storage for urine bladder
paired tubes that transfers urine from kidney --> bladder ureter
tube that carries urine out the body urethra
why does the bladder have rugae folds? so it can stretch to hold urine
the last area before urine leaves to go to the ureter is known as the... renal pelvis
the renal medulla contains most of the collecting tubules where we... collect urine & start to bring urine to center of kidney
the renal artery/vein enters the kidney & the ureter leaves the kidney via this structure... renal hilum
urine is carried down from the pyramid and exits through the.... renal papillae
the renal column acts as areas for blood vessels to travel through
the calyces... drain each renal pyramid
this calyx comes in contact with the renal pelvis major calyx
this calyx comes in contact with the renal papilla minor calyx
what structures are in the medulla of the nephron? collecting duct & nephron loop
where does filtration take place? the renal corpuscle
the cortex of the kidney consists of.... nephrons, renal corpuscle & renal tubules
the glomerulus receives blood from the... afferent arteriole
microscopic filtering units - where the actual work is done is known as... nephrons
the ___ begins urine production, finalize urine by reabsorption and excrete excess ions nephron
the ___ is where things are filtered out and contains many tiny pores & allows movement of filtrate bowmans capsuile
only about 20% passes bowman's capsule..the rest goes to... efferent arteriole
the renal tubule consists of... nrphron loop, PCT, DCT
most absorption is done in the.... PCT
PTH promotes reabsorption of calcium ions in the.... DCT
what is the job of the collecting duct? it collects & concentrate urine, adjusts urine osmolarilty
the renal corpuscle is simply the __ and __ glomerulus and bowman's capsule
what happens in glomerular filtration? glucose, amino acids & ions are filtered.. exits through vasa recta
the presence of glucose or proteins in the urine usually indicates.... a problem with the filtration membrane
tubular reabsorption takes place in the.... collecting ducts & renal tubules
anything that's not reabsorbed becomes... urine
the process of reclaiming everything filtered such as amino acids, glucose, ions is known as ___ tubular reabsorption
tubular rebasorption returns.... needed substances back to the blood
mains site of tubular secretion PCT
tubular secretion functions in... acid/base balance, disposing of undesirable substances & ridding body of excess K+
filtrate is.... everything found in the body but proteins & RBC's
outward pressures __ glomerular filtration promote
inward pressures ___ glomerular filtration inhibit
chief pressure pushing solutes & water out of blood across membrane glomerular hydrostatic pressure (55mmHg)
the glomerular hydrostatic pressure is essentially.. blood pressure
the inward pressure pushing into the capsule is known as ... hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capsule (15mmHg)
the inward pressure applied by proteins in the blood is called... osmotic pressure in glomerular capillaries (30 mmHg)
the NFP determines the ___ glomerular filtration rate
net filtration pressure = (outward pressures-inward pressure) (55mHg) -(15+30mmHg)
the volume of filtrate formed each minute by the combined activity of all the glomeruli in the kidneys glomerular filtration rate
selective movement of substances from blood to filtrate is known as... tubular secretion
if GFR increases...what happens to urine output and blood pressure/volume? this increases urine output - BP/volume decreases
GFR can be controlled by changing one variable, known as... glomerular hydrostatic pressure
the myogenic mechanism is... a response to decrease GFR
if the glomerular hydrostatic pressure rises...what happens to the net filtration pressure and GFR? they both rise
what happens if the glomerular hydrostatic pressure drops too low? GFR can drop to 0!
in the myogenic mechanism, what activates the sensory stretch receptors? increase in blood pressure
what is the purpose of the JGC complex? it helps regulate rate of filtration & increases blood pressure
the granular cells a.k.a the juxtaglomerular cells functions in... secretes renin when pressure is low
renin is secreted when... BP is low
the extraglomerular mesangial cells... pass regulatory signals between macula densa & granular cells
most of the reabsorption is done here. PCT
the PCT reabsorbs... 65% salt & water, glucose and amino acids, urea & uric acid
this method of reabsorption is uncontrollable, it takes place in the PCT where water follows solute. obligatory water reabsorption
this method of absorption is adjustable and depends on the ADH levels. falculatative water absorption
ADH determines the number of.... aquaporins (water channels)
ADH is produced in response to... saltiness of fluid
the interaction between the flow of filtrate through the ascending & descending limbs of the nephron loop is known as the counter-current multiplier
when you overhydrate...what happens to ECF osmolarity & ADH? they both decrease
what are cortical nephrons? short nephron loops, account for 85% of nephrons
in cortical nephrons, efferent arterioles supply.... peritubular capillairies
in juxtamedullary nephrons, efferent arterioles supply the... vasa recta
juxtamedullary nephrons are __ nephron groups that... long. creates the osmotic gradient - helps concentrate urine
who's job is it to maintain the gradient? and what is it highly permeable to? vasa recta - salt and water
the ___ uses the gradient to adjust urine osmolarity collecting duct
the descending limb pumps out __ while the ascending limb pumps out ___ water - salt
function of ADH. inhibits urine production
ADH is released by the... posterior pituitary
___ is when selected substances (creatine, hydrogen and potassium ions) are moved from peritubular capillaries through tubule cells into filtrate tubular secretion
what happens when the pH drops and gets more acidic? renal tubules secrete more hydrogen ions in filtrate to form bicarbonate
what happens when the pH rises and becomes more basic? renal tubules secrete more chloride ions
when ketone bodies are found in the urine, it is usually a sign of... starvation
voiding (micturition) is simply the act of... emptying the urinary bladder
in order for micturition to occur. what must happen? the detrusor muscle must contract & the sphincters must open.
the pontine storage center ___ urine and ___ sympathetic and somatic motor nerve activity... inhibits - increases
the pontine micturition center __ urine while ___ the sympathetic and somatic motor nerve activity promotes - decreases
___ increases reabsorption of calcium PTH
atrial natririude peptide functions in conserving sodium by decreasing blood volume/pressure
angiotensin II stimulates the release of what 2 hormones? ADH & aldosterone
aldosterone causes increased ___ and ___ sodium & water absorption
aldosterone pulls ___ in while spitting___ out sodium - potassium
aldosterone is released from the ___ adrenal corttex
what effect does aldosterone have on blood volume & pressure? increases it
what hormone causes water to be reabsorbed back into the body and prevents water loss in urine ADH
if you decrease water in the becomes more ___ concentrated
the amount of ADH determines the number of... aquaporins (water channels)
very low amounts of ADH will cause the urine to be.. diluted
ADH ___ blood volume & pressure increases
Created by: Mariahj25



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