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IPHY 3410- exam 3

type of epithelium in bronchus pseudostratified
where does smooth muscle end in bronchial tree thins out at bronchioles, absent around alveoli
respiratory distress syndrome premature infants, inability to produce enough surfactant
lobule definiton 1 larger bronchiole and all of its branches
stroma elastic connective tissue that surrounds, supports, and connects lobules
emphysema unable to fully exhale
two main layers of pericardium fibrous and serous
two (3) parts of serous membrane parietal, visceral w/ pericardial cavity in between
visceral pericardium aka epicardium
two possible causes of heart murmur mitral valve prolapse (weakness in collagen or chordae tendinae) or stenosis (calcium deposits)
what are cardiac muscle desmosomes called fascia adherens
ischemic restriction in blood supply resulting in oxygen and glucose deprivation of tissues
arterial vs. veinous walls thicker on arteries and veins have valves **arteries have more elastin in tunica media
muscular arteries tunica media has external and internal elastic lamina
part of capillary that is always open metarteriole (precapillary sphincters elsewhere)
3 types of capillaries continuous, fenestrated, sinusoidal
sinusoidal capillary large intercellular cleft and incomplete basement membrane (lymph nodes)
blood contents 55% plasma, and 45% formed elements (includes <1% buffy coat)
where does hematopoiesis occur spongy bone
three things in blood clot plateler aggregates, RBCs, fibrin
afferent sensory neuron
efferent motor neuron
Schwann cells myelin sheath in PNS
what is the space between schwann cells called nodes of ranvier
unmyelinated axon schwann cell surrounds multiple axons
cell that forms myelin sheath in CNS oligodendrocyte`
multiple sclerosis gradual destruction of myelin
collection of axons in PNS is called nerve
collection of axons in CNS is called tract
all motor neurons are what kind of neuron multipolar
where are bipolar neurons found special sensory neurons only
sensory neurons are typically what unipolar neurons
where are cell bodies of sensory neurons in ganglia
where are cell bodies of motor neurons within CNS
interneurons are what type of neuron multipolar
what nerve is sensory only optic
what nerve is motor only hypoglossal
three types of synapses axodendritic, axosomatic, axoaxonic
presynaptic axon to postsynaptic dendrite axodendritic
presynaptic axon synapses to postsynaptic cell body axosomatic
presynaptic axon to postsynaptic axon axoaxonic
astrocyte (CNS) most abundant; transfer glucose (nourish) and take up excess neurotransmitter
microglial cell (CNS) least abundant; macrophages
microglial cell (CNS) least abundant; macrophages
ependymal cells (CNS) ciliated simple cuboidal epithelium/ line central hollow portions like ventricles and central canal
satellite cells (PNS) surround cell bodies to prevent information crossover
ganglia clusters of neuronal cell bodies
Tic Douloureux trigeminal nerve: satellite cells nearby degenerate (due to compressed blood vessel) and soft touch gets registered as pain
what is the opposite of caudal when referring to the brain rostral
arachnoid villi portions of arachnoid mater that extend into dural sinuses (where CSF is returned to the blood)
blood brain barrier specialized continuous capillaries without intercelluar clefts
what structures of a neuron do oligodendrocytes surround axons only
gray matter is composed of dendrites, cell bodies, glial cells, unmyelinated axons
ventricles are lined with what ependymal cells
order of ventricles lateral ventricles, third ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, 4th ventricle, central canal
capillary network within ventricles that produces CSF choroid plexus
hydrocephaly CSF overproduced/not removed properly in infants causing an increase in head size
5 distinct brain development regions telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon
telencephalon develops into what cerebrum and lateral ventricles
diencephalon develops into what thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, retina, third ventricle
metencephalon develops into what pons, cerebellum, fourth ventricle
myelencephalon develops into what medulla oblongata, fourth ventricle
three types of fiber tracts projection fibers, commissural fibers, association fibers
projection fibers allow communication between cortex and rest of nervous system
commissural fibers allow communication between right and left cerebral hemispheres
association fibers allow for communication within different parts of same hemisphere
decussation fiber crossover from left to right or vice versa
three types of processing areas sensory, motor, assocation
visual is processed where cerebellum, diencephalon, cerebrum, brain stem
auditory is processed where brain stem, cerebrum, diencephalon
motor is processed where cerebellum, diencephalon, cerebrum, brain stem
primary motor cortex frontal lobe, conscious control of skeletal muscles
premotor cortex association area for coordination of repetitive learned skills
what is the map of the primary motor cortex called motor homunculus
somatosensory association area interpret information based on prior experiences
what is the map of the primary somatosensory cortex called sensory homunculus
wernicke's area recognition of spoken words
olfactory cortext is part of limbic system
what sense is in insula gustatory cortext
basal ganglia clusters of cell bodies deep to white matter of cerebrum, allow for muscle tone
corpus striatum function (part of basal ganglia) starts, stops, and regulates intensity of movements
corpus striatum components caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus
parkinson's neuronal pathway leading to corpus striatum degenerates, stop releasing dopamine
alzheimer's: what pathway degeneration is the primary deficit basal forebrain (part of basal ganglia)
limbic system amygdala (emotional fears), hippocampus (converts short term memories to long term memories)
diencephalon thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
thalamus part of diencephalon; processing and relay center
epithalamus part of diencephalon; pineal gland, secretes melatonin
hypothalamus part of diencephalon; visceral control center (body temp, hunger/thirst, glands, etc.)
superior colliculi (corpora quadrigemina of midbrain) visual reflexes
inferior colliculi (corpora quadrigemina of midbrain) auditory reflexes; larger
pons regulates speed of respiration, bridge between cerebrum and cerebellum
3 functions of cerebellum current movements (where body parts are), planned movements, equilibrium
medulla oblongata brainstem, right below pons; controls HR, force of contractions, blood pressure, respiration rate
what is the one meninge structure around spinal cord that isn't present in brain epidural space; superficial to dura mater (fatty tissue)
ventral horns motor functions leave spinal cord here
dorsal horns sensory functions enter spinal cord here
lateral horns visceral motor neurons (only below cervical regions)
where are cell bodies of somatic & visceral sensory neurons dorsal root ganglia
cervical enlargement upper limb
lumbar enlargement lower limb
ascending tracts sensory interneuron axons
descending tracts motor interneuron axons
reflex arc no brain input, just goes to spinal cord (integration center at interneuron)
monosynaptic reflex axon terminals of sensory neurons synapse directly w/ motor neuron (2 neurons, one synapse)
polysynaptic reflex axon terminals of sensory neurons connected via 1+ interneurons
what structures of the PNS allow it to communicate with the CNS spinal nerves and cranial nerves
how many cranial nerves 12 pairs
how many pairs of spinal nerves 31 pairs
how many cervical nerves 8 (pair)
how many thoracic nerves 12 (pair)
how many lumbar nerves 6 (pair)
how many coccygeal nerves 1 (pair)
dermatomes map of the relationship between sensory receptors of the skin and the spinal nerves
paraplegia damage between T1-L2
quadriplegia damage above T1 (above C4 also lose ability to breathe)
mechanoreceptors respond to distortion caused by pressure changes, vibration, etc
meissner's corpuscles mechanoreceptors that respond to light touch
root hair plexus free nerve endings that wrap around hair to respond to movement
three types of proprioceptors (type of mechanoreceptors) muscle spindles, golgi tendon organs, joint kinesthetic receptors
nociceptors free nerve endings that respond to mechanical, thermal, or chemical stimuli
where are photoreceptors found melanocytes and retina
motor unit one somatic motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates
what is the structure on visceral motor neurons that synapses with smooth muscle cells variscosities
cervical plexus ventral rami C1-C5
brachial plexus ventral rami C5-T1
lumbar plexus ventral rami L1-L4
sacral plexus ventral rami L4-S4
polio virus that targets motor neurons
post polio syndrome older people lose functions because neurons that made new connections eventually fatigue
autonomic nervous system aka visceral motor
where do parasympathetic neurons originate from brainstem and sacral spinal nerves
where do sympathetic neurons originate from thoracic and lumbar regions
how many neurons between spinal cord and skeletal muscle for somatic motor 1
how many neurons between spinal cord and skeletal muscle for visceral motor 2
parasympathetic neuron lengths long, short (both Ach) and no branching
sympathetic neuron lengths short, long (Ach, NE) with branching
sympathetic trunk ganglion expansion of sympathetic trunk where pre and post ganglionic neurons synapse
sympathetic trunk runs parallel to spinal cord
Which epithelial lining corresponds to primary bronchi pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Which structure anchors the chordae tendinae of the atrioventricular valves papillary muscle
Which layer of the heart wall is visceral pericardium epicardium
What type of tissue comprises the SA node, AV node, bundle branches and Purkinje fibers? Muscle tissue
Which valve(s) of the heart are forced closed when blood tries to flow back into the ventricles at the end of a cardiac cycle? Pulmonary semilunar valve, Aortic semilunar valve
mitral valve aka bicuspid valve
what components of blood can move through the fenestrations plasma only
Deep gray matter is associated with which structures? basal forebrain nuclei and basal ganglia
Cerebral white matter is associated with which structures? projection tracts, commissural tracts, association tracts
two possible CSF tracts 1) lateral ventricles → third ventricle → fourth ventricle → central canal → subarachnoid space → arachnoid villi 2) lateral ventricles → third ventricle → fourth ventricle → subarachnoid space → arachnoid villi
# synapses somatic motor division 2
# synapses visceral motor division 3
In the cardiac cycle, what happens immediately after ventricular systole ends? both the atria and ventricles fill with blood
Which part of a blood vessel contains the vaso vasorum tunica externa
Which type of artery is defined as being closest to the heart and having the largest diameter? elastic artery
What makes up the formed elements of the blood? erythrocytes, leukocytes, & platelets
veins contain valves. What are those valves made of? tunica intima
What is the epineurium a dense irregular connective tissue surrounding a nerve
which type of fiber tract connects two locations within a single cerebral hemisphere? association
Which structures make up the brainstem medulla oblongata, pons & midbrain
Which two regions of the brain are considered to be the two major visceral control centers Medulla oblongata & hypothalamus
Which nerve plexus does the sciatic nerve arise from? Sacral
Created by: melaniebeale