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Chapter 6 muscles

QuestionAnswer
The ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force Contractility
The capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus Excitability
Extensibility The ability to be stretched
Ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched Elasticity
Each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called The epimysium
______ is another connective tissue located outside the epimysium Fascia
The fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells called ______ Fibers
Each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the Perimysium
A threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other Myofibrils
Thin myofilaments Actin myofilaments
Thick myofilaments Myosin myofilaments
Actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units called Sarcomeres
What band extends the length of the myosin The A band
On each side of the Z line is a light area called I band
The change difference across the membrane is called the Resting membrane potential
The brief reversal back of the charge is called Action potential
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers Motor neurons
Each branch that connects to the muscle forms Neuromuscular junction
A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called A motor unit
The enlarged merger terminal Presynaptic terminal
Space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell is the Synaptic cleft
Each presynaptic terminal contains Synaptic vesicles
A contraction of the entire in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in on of more muscle Muscle twitch
The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction is the Lag phase
The time of contraction is the Contraction phase
The time during which the muscle relaxes is the Relaxation phase
Where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing Tetany
The increase in number of motor units being activated is called Recruitment
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate
ATP is needed for energy for muscle contraction
ATP Is produced in the mitochondria
ATP Is short lived and unstable
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements are Synergists
Muscles that work in opposition to one another are called Antagonists
Most stationary end of the muscle Origin (head)
The end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement Insertion
Portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion is the Belly
Some muscles have multiple Origins or heads
2 types of muscle contractions Isometric & isotonic
Anaerobic respiration Without oxygen
Aerobic respiration With oxygen (more efficient)
If one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement, it is the Prime mover
Mastication Chewing
4 pairs of mastication muscles 2 pairs of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter
Intrinsic tongue muscles Change the shape of the tongue
Extrinsic tongue muscles Move the tongue
Sternocleidomastoid Lateral neck muscle and prime mover
Platysma Sheetlike muscle that covers the anterolateral neck
Occipitofrontalis Raises the eyebrows
Orbicularis oculi Closes the eyelids (causes crows feet)
Orbicularis oris Puckers the lips
Buccinator Flattens the cheeks
Zygomaticus Smiling muscle
Levator labii superioris Sneering
Depressor Anguli oris Frowning
Group of muscles on each side of the back Erector spinae
External intercostals Elevate the ribs during inspiration
Internal intercostals Contract during forced expiration
Ok each side of the linea alba is the ______ ________ muscle Rectus abdominis
Scapular movements: Trapezius & serratus anterior
Trapezius Rotates scapula
Serratus anterior Pulls scapula anteriorly
Pectoralis major Adducts and flexes the arm
Latissimus dorsi Medially rotates, adducts, & powerfully extends the arm "swimmer muscles"
Deltoid Attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle
Triceps brachii Extends the forearm
Biceps brachii Flexes the forearm
Brachialis Flexes forearm
Brachioradialis Flexes and supinates the forearm
Flexor carpi Flexes the wrist
Extensor carpi Extends the wrist
Flexor digitorum Flexes the fingers
Extensor digitorum Extends the fingers
19 hand muscles Intrinsic hand muscles
Gluteus maximus Buttocks
Quadriceps femoris Extends the leg
Created by: Tristonagee78