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The process in which a muscle becomes or is made shorter and tighter. Contraction
Muscle Cells Muscle Fibers
Four Major Functional Characteristics Contractility, Excitability, Extensibility, Elasticity
Another connective tissue located outside the epimysium. Fascia
A connective tissue sheath Epimysium
2 Major kinds of protein fibers Actin, Myosin
Actin and myosin form highly ordered units called Sarcomeres
The cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with... Myofibrils
What helps produce heat essential for maintenance of normal body temperature. Muscles
Each sarcomere extends from one _______ to another _______ Z line
Specialized muscle of the heart Cardiac Muscle
A bundle of nerve or muscle fibers bound together by connective tissue Fascicle
Muscle consisting of spindle shaped unstriped muscle cells Smooth muscle
On each side of the Z line is a light area called the ________ I Band
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers Motor neurons
A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates Motor unit
Brief reversal back of the charge Action potential
The charge difference across the membrane Resting membrane potential
A contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers. Muscle Twitch
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called threshold
___ is needed for energy for muscle contraction ATP
___ produced in the mitochondria ATP
___ is short-lived and unstable. ATP
24. Muscle composed of cylindrical multinucleate cells with obvious striations Skeletal Muscle
thin connective tissue surrounding each muscle cell Endomysium
Perimysium Connective tissue enveloping bundles of muscle fibers
The sheath of fibrous connective tissue surrounding a muscle Epimysium
Sarcolemma oral nuclei beneath the plasma membrane
Myosin one of the principal contractile proteins found In muscle
Actin contractile protein
Specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Neuron process that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body Axon
Chemical transmitter substance released by certain nerve endings Acetylcholine
the result of muscle exercise strenuously for a long time muscle fatigue
Isotonic contractions successful sliding movements of myofilaments
contractions where muscles don't shorten Isometric contractions
attachment of a muscle as opposed to it's origin. insertion
Origin attachment of a muscle that remains relatively fixed and contracted
Synergists muscles cooperating with another muscle or muscle group to produce movement
Antagonists muscles that act in opposition to antagonist or prime moves
muscles acting to immobilize a joint or bone Fixators
42. Most stationary end of the muscles Origin
portion of muscle between the origin and the insertion Belly
the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions oxygen debt
Anaerobic respiration without oxygen
Aerobic respiration with oxygen
isotonic equal tension
isometric equal distance
2 types of muscle contractions isometric, isotonic
High-energy molecule creatine phosphate
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements synergists
muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonists
if one muscle plays the major role in movements its called prime mover
Mastication chewing
4 pairs of mastication muscles 2 pairs of ptreygoids, temporalis, and masseter
Neck muscles Sternocleidomastoid
58. Raises the eyebrows Occipitofrontalis
Buccinator flattens the cheeks
frowning Depressor angui oris
Levator labii superioris sneering
Muscles that move the thorax Thoracic Muscles
Orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids
Zygomaticus smiling muscle
Rotates scapula Trapezius
Serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
adducts and flexes the arm Pectoralis major
Latissimus dorsi medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm.
Deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle
Gluteus maximus buttocks
extends the leg Quadriceps femoris
flexes the thigh Sartorius
Hamstring muscles posterior thigh muscles
Gastrocnemius and soleus form the calf muscle
Achilles tendon flex the foot and toes
Created by: tyoungbruh