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Blood Vessels

In a process called autoregulation, ________ in response to a decline in dissolved oxygen levels within a tissue. the precapillary sphincters relax
the right common carotid and right subclavian originate from_____ the brachiocephalic trunk
If you were to travel within the blood, what vessels would you travel through as you leave the right ventricle and go back to the left atrium? Identify the circuit you would be traveling through. pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary arterioles, capillaries, pulmonary veins,; pulmonary circuit.
During capillary exchange _______________________ causes filtration whereas ___________________________ causes osmosis. capillary hydrostatic pressure; blood osmotic pressure
The gas exchange of CO2 and O2 occurs in what? pulmonary circuit, allows for carbon dioxide to be released into the lungs and oxygen to be picked up by the red blood cells
During the long-term response to hemorrhage, which hormone(s) prominently promotes fluid retention and reabsorption at the kidneys? ADH and aldosterone
What allows blood to flow from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta in the fetal circulation? ductas arteriosus
What is the advantage of the small diameter of capillaries? It slows blood flow, allowing sufficient time for exchange of materials across the capillary walls to occur.
What blood vessels are able to absorb the pressure changes that occur during the cardiac cycle? Arteries
Blood from the superficial structures of the head and neck is collected by_____ external jugular vein
The umbilical cord consists of what vessels? Two arteries and one vein
What would increase the rate of blood flow? decrease in blood viscosity
What hormones increase blood pressure? ADH, EPO, angiotensin II
What hormone does not increase blood pressure? ANP
How does blood overcome gravity and low pressure as it moves along a tibial vein back to the heart? muscular compression, respiratory pump, and venous valves
What vessels of the systemic circuit has the lowest pressure? inferior vena cava
When comparing arteries and veins, what statement is NOT correct? the arteries contain more blood than veins do
After merging with the external and internal jugular veins, the subclavarian vein becomes the ______ brachiocephalic vein
What is the large vein next to the common carotid that drains the brain? internal jugular
What is located in the aortic and carotid sinuses that is involved with cardiovascular regulation and responds to degree of stretch? baroreceptors
What statement is not true regarding blood vessels? arteries always carry oxygenated blood
Function of arteriole? controls blood pressure
Function of venule? smallest vessel, and drains tissues
Characteristic of vein? largest lumen
Characteristic of artery? thickest wall
Characteristic of capillary? most permeable
The vessels that permit exchange of materials between the blood and the surrounding interstitial fluid are termed? capillaries
The force that pushes fluid out of the capillaries is called? capillary hydrostatic pressure
The instrument used to measure blood pressure is the_____ sphygmomanometer
What is the top number in blood pressure reading? systolic pressure
Baroreceptors that function in maintaining adequate blood flow to the brain are located in the ______ carotid sinus
When one exercises at maximal levels, only the blood supply to the _____ in unaffected brain
The vessel that receives most of teh blood from organs inferior to the diaphragm is the _______ inferior vena cava
What contains oxygenated blood returning from the placenta? umbillical vein
The term Blood Pressure refers to the pressure in _________ of the cardiovascular system all arterial vessels
If you were to follow the flow of blood after it leaves the heart, what is the correct order of blood vessels it would travel through? arteries, arterioles, cappilaries, venules, veins
Where are the sensors for the arterial baroreceptor reflex located? carotid sinus and aortic arch, they detect changes in blood pressure by the degree of stretch on the blood vessel
If blood pressure is increased at the arterial baroreceptors, what would happen with the activity level of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS)? Increased PNS activity and decreased SNS activity in an attempt to lower blood pressure
Stimulation of the adrenal medulla would result in an increase in heart rate and contractility
A decrease in blood pressure at the arterial baroreceptors would result in an increase in heart contractility
What would cause the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla? a decrease in blood pressure at the baroreceptors
In the capillaries, bydrostatic pressure (HP) is exerted by blood pressure
The net hydrostatic pressure (HP) is the hydrostatic pressure in the _______ minus the hydrostatic pressure in the _______. capillaries; interstitial fluid
If the capillary hydrostatic pressure at the arteriole end is 35 mmHg and the interstitial hydrostatic pressure is 1 mmHg, what is the net hydrostatic pressure at the arteriole end? 34 mmHg
The colloid osmotic pressure in the capillary is caused by ______ Proteins in the blood
What net pressure draws fluid in to the capillary? net osmotic rpessure
Why does reabsorbption of fluid into the capillary take place at the venule end? net osmotic pressure i sgreater than the net hydrostatic pressure at the venule end
What is a factor affecting blood flow? turbulence, resistance, and viscosity
What is a factor that does not affect blood flow? direction
Chemoreceptors are to oxygen as baroreceptors are to _______ blood pressure
What hormones are released in response to a decrease in blood volume? ADH and Renin
When blood flow in the capillary bed decreases in response to locally high oxygen levels, it is caused by ________ autoregulation
What hormone is released by the kidneys when blood pressure falls or the oxygen content of the blood becomes abnormally low? erythropoietin
Angiotensin II elevates systemic blood pressure by triggering ateriole constriction
Which of the following monitors the composition of the CSF? Sensory neurons on the surface of the medulla oblongata
Which reflex specifically adjusts cardiac output and peripheral resistance to maintain arterial pressures? baroreceptor reflex
Explain the common carotid: Splits to form the interal and external carotid artiers to supply the brain and structures of the head and face
What carries deoxyginated blood from the brain? the internal jugular, a large vein in the anterior neck that returns blood to the circulatory system
The fusion of the two brachiocephalic veins forms the______ superior vena cava
the two iliac veins from the_______ inferior vena cava
The right common carotid and right subclavian originate from ______ the brachiocephalic artery
Which of the following is a shunt (short-circuit) that exists between the pulmonary and aortic trunks in the fetus? Ductus arteriorsus
In a fetus, blood from the right atrium can flow freely to the left atrium through the ________, thus bypassing the pulmonary circuit. foramen ovale
Regarding the placental blood supply, blood that bypasses the liver capillaries reaches the inferior vena cava within the ________. ductus venosus
Which age -related change is defined as the formation of stationary blood clot? thrombus
Created by: iessnorris