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a & p endrocine

endocrine system

endocine and nervous system working together referred to as neuroendocrine system
In the endocrine system, secreting cells send ___________ by way of the bloodstream to signal specific target cells throughout the body. hormones
secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood. Do not have ducts, they are often called “ductless glands endocrine glands
type of hormone that targets other endocrine glands and stimulate their growth tropic hormones
type of hormone that target reproductive tissues sex hormones
type of hormone that stimulate anabolism in target cells anabolic hormones
classifications of hormones based on general functions tropic hormones, sex hormones, anabolic hormones
classification of hormones based on chemical structure steroid hormones, nonsteroid hormones
type of hormone synthesized from cholesterol and are lipid soluble steroid hormones
examples of steroidal hormones Progesterone, Estrogen, Cortisol, Testosterone, Aldosterone
type of hormone synthesized from amino acids, protein hormone nonsteroidal hormones
examples of nonsteroidal hormone proteins insulin, parathyroid, glucogen, calcitonin, ACTH, FSH, TSH
type of protein hormone with carbohydrate group attached to amino acid chain glycoprotein
examples of glycoproteins FSH(follicle stimulating hormone), TSH(thyroid stimulating hormone), LH(luteinizing hormones)
classifications on nonsteroidal hormones proteins, glycoproteins, peptides, amino acid derivitives
examples of peptide hormones oxytocin, antidiuretic
examples of amino acid hormones T4, T3, epinephrine, norepinephrine
Any cell with one or more receptors for a particular hormone is said to be a ________ of that hormone target
Different hormones may work together to enhance each other's influence on a target cell synergism
_______________ occurs when a small amount of one hormone allows a second hormone to have its full effect on a target cell permissiveness
when one hormone produces the opposite effect of another hormone. Used to “fine tune” the activity of target cells antagonism
group of lipid molecules that serve important and widespread integrative functions in the body but do not meet the usual definition of a hormone prostaglandins
___________ infusion of ______________ results in an immediate fall in blood pressure accompanied by an increase in regional blood flow to several areas, including the coronary and renal systems. intraareterial, prostaglandins A (PGAs)
_____________ have an important role in vascular, metabolic, and gastrointestinal functions. Vascular effects include regulation of red blood cell deformability and platelet aggregation, role in systemic inflammations, such as fever. protaglandins E (PGEs)
important role in the reproductive system, cause uterine muscle contractions prostaglandins F (PGFs)
type of hormone produced in a tissue and diffuses only a short distance to other cells within the same tissue tissue hormone
located within the skull on the ventral surface of the brain,lies in the pituitary fossa of the sella turcica, has a stemlike stalk, the infundibulum, which connects it to the hypothalamus of the brain. pituitary gland
formerly known as the hypophysis pituitary gland
structures of the pituitary gland adenohypophysis(anterior),neurohypophysis (posterior)
divisions of the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) pars anterior, pars inferior
5 types of secretory cells of the pituitary gland somatotrophs (growth), corticotrophs (adrenocorticotropic), thyrotrophs (thyroid), lactotrophs (prolactic), gonadotrophs (FSH & LH)
type of growth hormone that promotes bone and muscle growth, stimulates fat metabolism, lipid catabolism as energy source, maintains homeostasis of glucose levels somatotropin
produced by acidophils in the pars anterior, milk secrestion prolactin
stimulating effect on other endocrine glands, secreted by the basophils of the pars anterior tropic hormones
stimulates primary graafian follicles to grow, also stimulates follicle cells to secrete estrogen follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
stimulates the formation and activity of the corpus luteum which secretes progesterone and estrogen, luteinizing hormones
during stress the ______________ translates nerve impulses into hormone secretions by endocrine glands creating "mind-body" link hypothalamus
serves as storage and release site for antidiuretic homrones and oxytocin neurophypophysis (posterior pituitary)
tiny, pine cone shaped structure located on the dorsal aspect of the brain's diencephalon, receives visual stimuli, supports body's biological clock, secretes melatonin pineal gland
composed of two large lateral lobes, located in the neck just below the larynx, thyroid gland
type of hormone that acts as an antagonist to calcitonin to maintain Ca homeostasis, stimulated kidney to produce active Vit D parathyroid hormone
located on the top of the kidneys, composed of two portions adrenal glands
two structures of the adrenal gland adrenal cortex (endocrine tissue), adrenal medulla (neurosecretory tissue)
3 distince layers of secreting cells zona glomerulosa (outer), zona fasciculata (middle), zona reticularis (inner)
only mineralocorticoid in the body that functions in the maint of K in the blood, increases water retention and promotes loss of Na aldosterone
the two portions of the pituitary gland the adenohypophysis/(anterior pituitary gland), neurohypophysis(posterior pituitary gland)
cells of the adenohypophysis are more often classified by their secretions into five types: Somatotrophs— growth hormone (GH) Corticotrophs—adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Thyrotrophs—thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Lactotrophs— prolactin (PRL) Gonadotrophs—luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
GH affects metabolism in these ways: Promotes protein anabolism (growth, tissue repair) Promotes lipid mobilization and catabolism Indirectly inhibits glucose metabolism Indirectly increases blood glucose levels
The chief glucocorticoids secreted by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex is cortisol
sex hormones that are released from the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex rather than the gonads. gonadocorticoid hormones
The adrenal medulla secretes two important hormones, both of which are in the class of nonsteroid hormones called catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine
hormones produced by pancreatic islets glucagon, insulin, somatostatin
a gland in the mediastinum, just beneath the sternu, large in children atrophies as an adult thymus
examples of GI hormones gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin
Hyposecretion of adrenal cortical hormones (adrenal cortical insufficiency)- characterized by weakness, anorexia, weight loss, nausea, irritability, decreased cold tolerance, dehydration, increased skin pigmentation, and emotional disturbance Addisons disease
Hypersecretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-Caused by adenoma of the anterior pituitary, increased ACTH causes hypersecretion of adrenal cortical hormones Cushings
Hyposecretion of (or insensitivity to) antidiuretic hormone (ADH)-Metabolic disorder characterized by extreme PU/PD because of a decrease in the kidney's retention of water Diabetes insipidus
Hypersecretion of thyroid hormone- Inherited, possibly autoimmune disease characterized by hyperthyroidism, exophthalmos (protruding eyes) Graves disease
Hyposecretion of insulin- Inherited condition with sudden childhood onset characterized by PU/PD, overeating, weight loss, fatigue, and irritability, resulting from the inability of cells to secure and metabolize carbohydrates Diabetes mellitus, type 1
Insensitivity of target cells to insulin- Carbohydrate-metabolism disorder with slow adulthood onset thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors and characterized by PU/PD, overeating, weight loss, fatigue, irritability Diabetes mellitus, type 2
Created by: srehrauer



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