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Intro/A&P

Epithelial Tissue

QuestionAnswer
What is the name for a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity? Epithelial Tissue
What are the two forms of Epithelial Tissue? Covering and lining, glandular
This forms the outer layer of the skin; lines open cavities of the digestive and respiratory systems; covers the walls of organs of the closed ventral body cavity. lining epithelium
This surrounds glands within the body. Glandular epithelium
What are the five main characteristics of epithelial tissue? 1. Polarity 2. Specialized contacts 3. Supported by connective tissue 4. Avascular and innervated 5. Regeneration
What do all epithelia have in common? They all have an apical surface and a lower attached basal surface.
What do most apical surfaces have to increase surface area? Microvilli
Give two examples of tissue that has "brush border" due to microvilli. Epithelial lining of the intestine and kidney tubules.
What are the hairlike projections on some epithelia? Cilia
What is the purpose of the cilia? The hairlike projections push substances along their free surfaces.
What is next to the basal surface? Basal lamina
What is the purpose of the basal lamina? thin supportive sheet that acts as a filter allowing and inhibiting certain molecules from passing into the epithelium
What do epithelia use to fit close together? tight junctions and desmosomes
What forms the closest contact between cells and helps keeps proteins in the apical region of the plasma membrane? Tight junctions
What connect the plasma membrane to intermediate filaments in the cytoplasm Desmosomes
What is deep to the basal lamina? reticular lamina
What is the purpose of the reticular lamina? It is an extracellular material containing collagen protein fiber that forms the basement membrane.
What is the purpose of the basement membrane? It reinforces the epithelium and helps it resist stretching and tearing.
Is epithelium vascular or avascular? avascular (contains no blood vessels)
What is epithelium innervated with? Nerve fibers
Explain the epithelia regenerative quality. Epithelia have a high regenerative capacity and can reproduce rapidly as long as they receive adequate nutrition.
What are the types of epithelium? Simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, transitional, pseudostratified columnar, stratified cuboidal, stratified squamous
How do epithelia derive their names? The first name indicates the number of cell layers. The second name describes the shape of its cell.
Based on the number of cell layers epithelia can be ________ or _______ simple or stratified
Describe structure and function of simple epithelia consist of a single layer (found where absorption, secretion, and filtration occur).
Describe the structure and function of stratified epithelia. composed of two or more cell layers stacked on top of each other (typically found in high abrasion areas where protection is needed).
Why are there three ways to describe the shape and height of epithelial cells? All epithelial cells have six sides but they vary in height.
Describe squamous cells. Flat and scale-like
Describe cuboidal cells box-like with same height and width
Describe columnar cells tall and column shaped
Where is simple squamous epithelium found? where filtration occurs, kidneys, lungs
What are the two simple squamous epithelia in the body that have special names reflecting their location? Endotheliumm mesothelium
Describe endothelium. provides friction reducing lining in lymphatic vessels and all hollow organs of the cardiovascular system, heart, blood vessels, capillaries
Describe mesothelium the epithelium found in serous membranes, lining the ventral body cavity and covering the organs within it.
Where is simple columnar epithelium found? A single layer of tall closely packed cells that line the digestive tract from the stomach to the rectum.
What are the functions of simple columnar epithelium? Absorption and secretion.
Name some characteristics of simple columnar epithelium They contain dense microvilli on their apical surface. Some may display cilia on their free surface.
Where are pseudostratified columnar epithelium found? All of their cells rest on the basement membrane and only the tallest reach the apical surface. Respiratory tract.
Name a quality of pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Most contain cilia on their apical surface and line the respiratory tract.
What is the function of stratified squamous epithelium? protection. it forms the external part of the skin and extends into every body opening that's continuous with the skin.
Name the two types of stratified squamous epithelium keratinized and nonkeratinized
Is the outer layer of the skin (epidermis) keratinized or non keratinized? keratinized, has the protein keratin for protection
Where is nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium found? Inside the body
How prevalent is stratified cuboidal epithelium in the human body? it is rare
Where is stratified cuboidal epithelium found? Ducts of glands, sweat, mammary.
How many layers of cuboidal cells does stratified cuboidal epithelium have? two
How prevalent is stratified columnar epithelium? rare
Where is stratified columnar epithelium found? pharynx, male urethra, lining of some glandular ducts. transition areas (junctions) between other epithelial types.
Where is transitional epithelium found? hollow urinary organs which stretch as they fill with urine.
Created by: amy wiseman