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Muscle

Muscles of the body

QuestionAnswer
Occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
Orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids and causes “crows feet” wrinkles in the skin at the lateral corners of the eye
Orbicularis oris puckers the lips
Buccinator flattens the cheeks. Trumpeter’s muscle
"kissing muscles" Orbicularis oris and buccinator
Zygomaticus smiling muscle
Levator labii superioris sneering
Depressor anguli oris frowning
Mastication chewing
4 pairs of mastication muscles 2 pair of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter
Intrinsic Tongue Muscles change the shape of the tongue
Extrinsic Tongue Muscles move the tongue
Sternocleidomastoid lateral neck muscle and prime mover. Rotates and abducts the head
Erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the back. Responsible for keeping the back straight and the body erect
Thoracic Muscles muscles that move the thorax
External intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration
Internal intercostals contract during forced expiration
Diaphragm accomplishes quiet breathing. Dome-shaped muscle. Aids in breathing
Abdominal wall muscles The muscles of the anterior abdominal wall flex and rotate the vertebral column, compress the abdominal cavity, and hold in the abdominal viscera
linea alba In a relatively muscular person with little fat, a vertical linear indentation is visible, extending from the sternum, through the navel to the pubis, consists of white connective tissue rather than muscle
rectus abdominis On each side of the linea alba
Tendinous inscriptions cross the rectus abdominis at three or more locations, causing the abdominal wall of a well-muscled person to appear segmented
Lateral to the rectus abdominis are layers of muscle. From superficial to deep external abdominal oblique, internal abdominal oblique, and transverses abdominis muscles
what do these muscle layers do when they contract and why? compress the abdominal contents, they are oriented in opposite directions
Trapezius rotates scapula
Serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles attach arm to thorax
Pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
Latissimus dorsi medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm. “Swimmer muscles”
Deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limb
Triceps brachii extends the forearm. Occupies the posterior compartment of the arm
Biceps brachii flexes the forearm. Occupies the anterior compartment of the arm
Brachialis flexes forearm
Brachioradialis flexes and supinates the forearm
Retinaculum (bracelet) strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons and holds them in place around the wrist so that they do not “bowstring” during muscle contraction
Flexor carpi flexes the wrist
Extensor carpi extends the wrist
Flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
Extensor digitorum extends the fingers
intrinsic hand muscles 19 hand muscles, located within the hand
Interossi muscles located between the metacarpals, are responsible for abduction and adduction of the fingers
Gluteus maximus buttocks. Contributes most of the mass of the buttocks
Gluteus medius hip muscle and common injection site
Quadriceps femoris extends the leg; anterior thigh muscles
Sartorius “tailors muscle”; flexes the thigh
Hamstring muscles posterior thigh muscles; flexes the leg and extends the thigh
Gastrocnemius and soleus form the calf muscle
calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon) formed from Gastrocnemius and Soleus, Flex the foot and toes
peroneus muscles The lateral muscles of the leg, primarily everters (turning the lateral side of the foot outward) of the foot, but they also aid in plantar flexion
intrinsic foot muscles 20 muscles located within the foot, flex extend, abduct, and adduct the toes
Contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force. (not contractibility)
Excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
Extensibility the ability to be stretched
Elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched
how do muscles help maintain normal body temperature? they produce heat
epimysium connective tissue sheath that surround each skeletal muscle
Fascia connective tissue located outside the epimysium. It surrounds and separates muscles
perimysium loose connective tissue that surrounds muscle fasciculi
muscle fibers single muscle cells
muscle fasciculi composed of muscle fibers
endomysium connective tissue sheath surrounding each fiber
myofibrils threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other, fills cytoplasm if each fiber.
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments. They resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments. They resemble bundles of minute golf clubs
sarcomeres formed by actin and myosin, joins end to end to form the myofibril
the basic structural and functional unit of the muscle sarcomere
Each sarcomere extends from one _____ to another ______ Z line (disk)
Each Z line is an attachment site for ______ actin
The arrangement of actin and myosin give a _______ appearance banded
I band light area on each side of the Z line, consists of actin
A band extends the length of the myosin. darker central region in each sarcomere
H zone another light area in the center of each sarcomere, consists of myosin
M line dark staining band where myosin myofilaments are anchored in the center of the sarcomere
resting membrane potential The charge difference across the membrane
When a muscle cell is stimulated the membrane characteristics change briefly. The brief reversal back of the charge is called action potential
Created by: Shaun T