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Intraoral Radiology

BWX, Periapicals, Occlusals

occlusal plane parallel to floor patient position
perpendicular to floor midsagital line
size, speed, amount of time, # of films in packet selection of film packet
what you want to be visible on the film Film positioning
XCP, Snap-A-Ray, Stabe, Bitewing tabs/loops Film Holding devices
round piece coming off machine where radiation comes out PID
18",12",16"(round, rectangular) Length/Shape of PID
mA, kVp, time, Control panel settings
how image on film gets there Shadow casting
source of x-ray photons focal spot on target of x-ray tube
records the image function of the film
Goal of radiography best density, contrast, sharpness, clarity using least amount of radiation
smallest possible source of radiation sharper the image
Object and film as close as possible reduced magnification
object and film parallel decreased distortion
radiation must strike object and film at right angles(perpendicular) decreased distortion
Ideal conditions smallest possible source of radiation, boject far from source, object/film close as possible, object/film parallel, radiation must strike object/film at right angle
object/film are not parallel; radiation does not strike at right angle Bisecting Technique
object to film distance is greater Paralleling technique
long axis of tooth /plane of film form angle; x-ray beam directed at right angle to imaginary bisector Bisecting Technique
used when parallel placement is impossible(small mouth, children, low palate, cleft palate, tori) Bisecting
dimensional distortion and unequal magnification occurs in Bisecting
steeper vertical angle causes shadow of zygomatic process to superimpose roots of maxillary molars
film parallel to long axis of teeth Paralleling
x-ray beam directed at right angle to teeth/film Paralleling
Increased target to film distance to compensate for Increased object to film distance
Minimal distortion, easy to learn, less time Paralleling advantages
sometimes difficult to place films/patient discomfort Paralleling disadvantages
patient seated upright; occlusal plane parallel to floor; midsagital plane perpendicular to floor Patient positioning
Ala-Tragus line Maxillary Point of Entry
1/2 inch above mandible Mandibular Point of Entry
Commissure of lips-tragus line Bitewing Point of Entry
Side to side, central ray pass through interproximal space Horizontal PID angulation
occurs when horizontal angulation is not correct Overlapping
up/down; PID angle is zero when parallel to floor Vertical Angulation
Tip of PID tilted toward floor Positive vertical angulation
Tip of PID tilted toward ceiling Negative vertical angulation
Views crowns and alveolar bone of Max. and Mand. teeth on 1 film Bitewings
Most common dental film; included in FMX or taken alone at check-ups BMX
Detect interproximal dental caries in posterior teeth(incipient lesions); Examine crestal bone of periodontal patients(vertical/horizontal) Purpose of BMX
can be placed close to teeth and still be parallel to teeth of both arches Advantages of BWX
doesn't show apices Disadvantages of BWX
films with tabs attached, loops/adhesive tabs, XCP instruments Bitewing holders
Central ray directed through contact area Horizontal BW
+10 degrees Vertical Angulation BW
level of occlusal plane BW Point of entry
If not lined up correctly, area where no radiation hits film causes clear spot Cone cut
Peri means Around
Apex means highest point
view the entire tooth(including root) and surrounding structures Periapical series FMX
FMX film size depends on patient age,size of mouth,shape of arches, anatomical limitations,film holder, patient's ability to tolerate film
Use___film patient can accomodate largest
number of films in FMX 18 including BWX
Film placement anterior periapicals Vertical
Film placement posterior periapicals Horizontal
Identification dot towards biteblock
Wilhem Conrad Roentgen 1895 discovered x-ray
Dr. Otto Walkoff took 1st x-ray (Germany)
Dr. William aherbert Rollins warned about dangers of radiation; also claimed to take dental x-ray 1st
Dr. William James Morton Claimed to take 1st dental x-ray
Dr. C. Edmund Kells also claimed to take 1st dental x-ray
William David Coolidge Invented X-ray hot cathode tube
Howard Riley Raper wrote 1st dental x-ray text book; introduced bitewing x-ray
Radiography making of radiographs
X-ray/Roentgen ray unknown ray(interchangeble terms)
Roentgenograph/radiograph Image produced on the film
Cone-PID end of x-ray tube
Panoramic radiology Film gets entire mouth (ear-ear) on one film
Weston A. Price suggested looking into bisecting/parallel teechnique(didn't receive credit)
A. Cieszynski Applied rule of issemetry to bisecting technique
Franklin W. Mc Cormack developed paralleling technique
G. M. Fitzgerald Used longer PID with paralleling technique to compensate for distance(less magnification)
Tomography Used in most Panoramic units-radiographs a single plane @ a time
Magnetic resonance Imaging(MRI) method to take crossectional images produced on computer(no radiation) magnetic field
Computed Tomography(CT) instead of film it uses computer to display
Digital Imaging digital receptor captures images then transfers to computer
elements simple substance made up of atoms
Atom smallest particle of an element. Made up of subatomic particles
subatomic particles Electrons, Protons, Neutrons
Electrons little mass or weight and negatively charged
Protons weigh more than electrons and are (+) charged (atomic #)
Neutrons weigh almost the same as protons, no charge
Molecule smallest particle of a substance
Isotopes Atoms of an element that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Energy levels Electron shells
Ions Atoms that have gained or lost electrons and have become electrically unstable(charged particle)
Positive ion Atom that lost an electron
Negative ion The free electron that was separated from the atom
Ion pair the positive and negative ions
ionization formation of ion pairs
cause of ionization x-ray photons hitting atoms
electromagnetic radiation x-rays,gamma rays,cosmic rays
Particulate radiation alpha,beta particles
Ionizing radiation Any radiation that produces ions
2 forms of radiation Electromagnetic, particulate
Radioactivity process that occurs when unstable elemnets are trying to return to a stable nuclear state
Decay The release of energy by unstable isotopes in an attempt to regain stability
2 forms of radiation released by decay Particulate, Electromagnetic(Gamma)
Electromagnetic Radiation The movement of wave-like energy through space as a como of electric and magnetic fields
Electromagnetic spectrum Electromagnetic radiation placed in order according to their energy
Travel at speed of light, no electrical charge, no mass/weight, pass through space as particles in wave-like motion, give off electrical field at right angles/magnetic field at right angles, energies measureable and different qualities of electromagnetic radiation
Particles in electromagnetic radiation photons
photons of particles are bundles of energy that travel through space at speed of light
Wave of electromagnetic radiation wavelength,frequency, velocity
Wavelength measured from crest to crest
Frequency # of wavelengths that pass in a given time
Velocity speed at which waves travel
Wavelength and Frequency are related how? Inversely
The shorter the wavelength The higher the frequency
X-radiation(x-rays) don't all have same wavelength
Soft radiation long wavelength with limited penetrating power
Hard radiation wavelength 0.1-0.5A with great penetrating power
Properties of X-rays Invisible,travel in straight line at speed of light,no mass/weight/charge,interact with mater causing ionization,photographic film emulsion,penetrate opaque tissue, effect living tissue
Where are x-rays produced? In an x-ray tube inside tube head
When are x-rays produced? when high speed electrons(kinetic energy) are abruptly stopped converting to bremsstrahlung and characteristic radiation
Bremsstrahlung Radiation majority of x-rays produced
Bremsstrahlung radiation is produced when? high speed electron collides with nucleous of an ataom in target metal and all kinetic energy is transferred into a single x-ray photon;high speed e- is slowed down/bent off course and kinetic energy is lost turns into x-ray
Characteristic radiation only produced when kVp is 70 or higher
only make up a portion of x-rays produced Characteristic radiation
Characteristic radiation is produced by high speed electron powerful enough to collide with and dislodge an e- from the k-shell of a tungsten target atom
No ionization occurs when X-ray passes through an atom unchanged (9%)
Coherent scattering occurs when x-ray is scattered unchanged(8%)
Photoelectric effect occurs when x-ray gives all energy to orbital e- of an atom; original x-ray vanishes and e- with kinetic energy flies from orbit forming an ion pair. photoelectron knocks another e- from its orbit forming a secondary ion pair. keeps going until all energy used(30%)
Compton effect occurs when x-ray gives some energy to orbital e- and rest forms a weaker x-ray that scatters in a different direction. The new x-ray may undergo a new comton or photoelectric (62%)
2 forms of ionizing radiation Photoelectric and Compton effect
forms of non-ionizing radition no interaction, scatter
Exposure measurement of ionizations in air produced by x-rays
Coulombs per kilogram (C/kg) Exposure
Absorbed dose amount of energy deposited in the tissue
Gray(Gy) Absorbed dose
Dose Equivalent Absorbed dose X biological effect mod. factor
Dose Equivalent= Absorbed dose
Sievert (Sv) Dose equivalent
(C/kg)= Roentgen(R)
(Gy)= rad
(Sv)= rem
Line switch,mA selector,kVp selector,Timer(60 impulse a second) Control Panel
Suspend tube head, allows positioning of PID, Passage of electrical current Functions of the extension arm
Metal housing contains X-ray tube,insulating oil,step-up/step-down transformer
protects x-ray tube,increases safety,precents over heating, absorbs any x-rays produced except for the primary beam Functions of the metal housing
Conditions required for x-ray production free source of electrons,High voltage to give speed to electrons,Target capable of stopping electrons
positive electrode (+) anode
negative electrode(-) cathode
minimizes resistance to electrons vacuum
Tube location in metal housing located behind transformers(Richards)
To provide free electrons needed for x-ray production Cathode
Components of cathode Filament wire and Focusing cup
Filament wire made of Tungsten
Tungsten wire heated to Incondecence
Filament wire produces Thermionic emission(electron cloud)
Composed of molybdenum Focusing cup
Focusing cup dose what directs electrons towards target
Stops high speed electrons converting them to X-rays Anode
Copper stem and Tungsten target Components of Anode
Carries headt produced to the radiator Copper stem
imbedded in coper stem at 20degree angle;contains focal spot; converts electrons to x-rays Tungsten target
Larger target but rays come off in smaller area; looks like a square,but is really a rectangle Line Focus Principle
1st steps in x-ray tube operation turn on unit,set control panel
once exposure button is pressed Low voltage(5V) to step-down transformer to supply filament wire with electricity to form electron cloud
supplies the anode-cathode with high-voltage to force free electrons across tube to the target Step-up transformer
Percentage of heat and x-rays produced 99% heat, 1% x-rays
removes heat copper stem in anode
once x-rays are produced they scatter in all directions
Most x-rays absorbed by glass envelope, oil/air, transformers, and tube head
x-rays going in direction of PID exit the window of the tube(thin glass area)
glass window is aligned with the port(opening in tube housing
x-rays exiting PID make up Primary Beam
After the port x-rays go through collimator(lead)
restricts size of primary beam Lead collimator
Center of the primary beam Central Ray
weaker x-rays(soft) absorbed by Aluminum filter
controlled by mA, kVp, exposure time,distance Intensity
Intensity is a combination of # of x-rays and energy of x-rays
# of x-rays in a beam quantity(mA)
energy or penetrating power of x-ray beam quality(kVp)
thickness of a given material(aluminum) to reduce intensity of x-ray beam in half Half-value Layer
Amperage measures # of electrons(quantity)
An increase in amperage increases amount of electrons available to travel across tube(produces more x-rays)
Amperage range for dental machines 7mA-15mA
measure of electromotive force; electric potential Voltage(quality)
Voltage measures electrical pressure between two electrical charges
Increase in kVp increases the speed of electrons traveling across tube; increase penetrating power
Voltage range for dental machine 70kVp-90kVp
changes direction between (+) and (-) current Alternating current
3-8 Volts we use 5V Filament circuit
High voltage circuit 60kVp-90kVp
Created by: oceanrescue6