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anatomy midterm

QuestionAnswer
Which axio-appendicular muscles adduct the humerus? Pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi
Which group of axio-appendicular muscles extend the humerus? Pectoralis major (sternocostal head) and Latissimus dorsi 3
Which group of axio-appendicular muscles flex the humerus? Pectoralis major (clavicular head) 4
Which group of axio-appendicular muscles medially rotate the humerus? Pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi 5
Which group of axio-appendicular muscles protract the scapula? Serratus anterior, pectoralis major, pectoralis minor 6
Which group of axio-appendicular muscles retract the scapula? Trapezius (middle part), rhomboid major, rhomboid minor 7
Which group of axio-appendicular muscles elevate the scapula? Trapezius (descending part), levator scapule, rhomboids 8
Which group of axio-appendicular muscles depress the scapula? Trapezius (ascending part), pectoralis major (sternocostal head), latissimus dorsi, serratus anterior, pectoralis minor 9
Which group of axio-appendicular muscles rotate the scapula superiorly? Trapezius (ascending and descending), serratus anterior (inferior part) 10
Which group of axio-appendicular muscles rotate the scapula inferiorly? Levator scapulae, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, pectoralis major, pectoralis minor 11
What are the rotator cuff muscles? Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis 12
Which muscles rotate the arm laterally? Infraspinatus, teres minor, deltoid 13
Which muscles rotate the arm medially? Subscapularis, teres major 14
Which muscles abduct the arm? Supraspinatus, deltoid 15
Which muscle initiates abduction of the arm? Supraspinatus (up to 15 degrees) 16
If there was damage to the supraspinatus nerve but not to the axillary nerve can person abduct arm? No, because supraspinatus initiates the abduction 17
If there was damage to the axillary nerve can person abduct arm? Yes, partially 18
What do the axio-appendicular muscles run between? Axis of the body and extremities 19
What is the function of the clavicle? Connect the upper extremity to the trunk of the body 20
What are the two bones that attach the clavicle? Acromion of scapula and manubrium of sternum 21
True or false: the clavicle transfers weight from the trunk to the scapula False 22
True or false: neck transfers weight of head to the body True 23
Pectoralis major acts on which structure? Upper part of the humerus 24
What muscle holds the scapula to the thoracic wall? Subscapularis or serratus anterior 25
What do antagonistic muscles do? Act against each other 26
What do synergistic muscles do? Act together to reach common goal 27
Divisions from which trunks create the lateral cord? Anterior divisions of the superior and middle trunks 28
Divisions from which trunks create the posterior cord? Posterior divisions of the superior, middle, and inferior trunks 29
Divisions from which trunks create the medial cord? Anterior division from the inferior trunk 30
Musculotaneuos nerve branches from which cord(s)? Lateral cord 31
Axillary nerve branches from which cord(s)? Posterior cord 32
Median nerve branches from which cord(s)? Lateral and medial cords 33
Radial nerve branches from which cord(s)? Posterior cord 34
Ulnar nerve branches from which cord(s)? Medial cord 35
How many nerves branch from the medial cord? Five 36
Which nerves branch from the medial cord? Medial pectoral nerve, median nerve, ulnar nerve, medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve, medial brachial cutaneous nerve 37
What does the medial pectoral nerve from the medial cord innervate? Pectoralis minor and sternal head of pectoralis major 38
True or false: pectoralis minor is directly deep to pectoralis major? True 39
Which group of muscles does the median nerve innervate? All of them muscles of the anterior flexor forearm except flexor carpi ulnaris and half of the flexor digitorum profundus 40
How does the median nerve enter the hand? Passes deep to the flexor retinaculum and enters through the carpal tunnel 41
Which muscles does the ulnar nerve innervate in the arm? None 42
Which muscles does the ulna nerve innervate in the forearm? Flexor carpi ulnaris and half of flexor digitorum profundus 43
True or false: the ulnar nerve enters the hand by passing through the carpal tunnel? False 44
How does the ulnar nerve enter the hand? Splits into two and passes beside the pisiform and hamate 45
What does the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve supply? Skin of the forearm 46
What does the medial brachial cutaneous nerve supply? Skin of the arm 47
How many nerves does the posterior cord branch into? Five 48
Which nerves branch from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus? Radial nerve, axillary nerve, thoracodorsal nerve, and upper and lower subscapular nerve 49
What are some effects of damage to the radial nerve? Also called Saturday night palsy- damage to extensor muscles of arm, forearm, and wrist and presents as wrist drop 50
Which nerve is most affected in damage to the posterior cord of the brachial plexus? Axillary nerve 51
Which muscles are affected in axillary nerve damage? Deltoid and teres minor 52
Which muscle actions are affected in axillary nerve damage? Loss of sensation of the skin covering the deltoid muscle, loss of abduction of the arm, weak external rotation 53
If the axillary nerve is damaged can person externally rotate arm? Yes but external rotation is weakened; synergistic muscle actions allows for arm to still be rotated 54
Which muscle(s) does the thoracodorsal nerve supply? Latissimus dorsi 55
Which muscles do the upper subscapularis nerves supply? Subscapularis muscle 56
Which muscles do the lower subscapularis nerves supply? Subscapularis and teres major 57
Which muscles does the median nerve supply in the arm? None 58
Which group of muscles does the ulnar nerve innervate in the hand? Intrinsic muscles of the hand 59
Which branch of the ulnar nerve is most vulnerable to injury? The superficial branch 60
How many muscles does the musculocutaneous nerve supply in the arm? Three 61
Which muscles does the musculocutanues nerve innervate in the arm? Coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, and brachialis 62
What does the musculocutanues nerve branch into and innervate in the forearm? Branches into the lateral cutaneous nerve and innervates the skin of the lateral aspect of the forearm 63
Does the radial nerve innervate muscles of the arm or forearm? Both, the radial nerve supplies all muscles in posterior compartment of arm and forearm 64
Where does the radial nerve branch off? Anterior to the lateral epicondyle of humerus 65
What does the radial nerve divide into? Deep branch (entirely muscular and articular in distribution) and superficial branch (entirely cutaneous in distribution) 66
Which branch of the radial nerve supplies the hand? Superficial branch 67
What condition results from nerve root compression? Cervical spondylosis 68
What nerve is most likely to be affected if you traumatize the roots directly? Long thoracic nerve 69
What may cause trauma to the roots? Strangled, stabbed at the root of the neck, sleeping on pillow compressing roots 70
Which muscles are supplied by the long thoracic nerve? Serratus anterior 71
Which condition is associated with injury of the long thoracic nerve? Winged scapula 72
What is the affect on the scapula when there is damage to the roots of the brachial plexus? Poor retraction of the scapula (rhomboids) 73
Where are the roots of the brachial plexus located? Between the anterior and medial scalene muscles (interscalene) 74
Where are the trunks located? In the posterior cervical triangle of the SCM 75
Where are the divisions located? Deep to the clavicle (subclavicular) 76
Where are the cords located? In the axilla 77
What is upper trunk injury called? Erb-duchenne paralysis 78
How would you get injury to the trunks? Being thrown off of a horse or motorcycle, violent downward displacement of arm 79
Which nerve injury would cause loss of abduction? Subclavicular nerve 80
Which nerve injury would cause loss of radial flexion? Axillary nerve 81
Which nerve injury would cause loss of external rotation (lateral rotation)? Cervical nerves C5, C6 82
What causes a middle trunk injury? Intrascalene block (very rare) 83
What causes a lower trunk injury? Called klumke paralysis; violent prolonged upward displacement of arm (example breech delivery, apical tumor, variation of 13th rib) 84
What are some problems associated with lower trunk injury? Loss of ulnar flexion (ulnar nerve)
Trauma to the roots present as what? Winged scapula because damage to the long thoracic nerve 86
Which cord is most commonly injured? Posterior cord (injured when using crutches) 87
What is the path of blood vessels to axillary artery heart to arch of aorta wo blood vessels one goes to the left one goes to the right, off of the rightàbrachiocephalic arteryàright subclavian arteryàcrosses the clavicle and becomes axillary arteryà
How many muscles are in the arm? Five; three flexor and two extensor 89
Which muscles are located in the flexor compartment of the arm? Biceps brachii, brachialis, and coracobrachialis 90
Which is a stronger flexor muscls; biceps brachii or brachialis? Brachialis because its only action is to flex 91
What is the main action of the biceps brachii? Supinates and flexes forearm; resists dislocation of shoulder 92
What is the main action of the coracobrachialis? Helps flex and adduct arm, resists dislocation of the shoulder 93
What is the main action of the brachialis? Flexes the forearm 94
Which muscles are located in the extensor compartment of the arm? Triceps brachii and anconeus 95
What is the main action of the triceps brachii? Chief extensor of forearm 96
What is the main action of the anconeus? Assists triceps in extending forearm, atabilizes elbow joint, may abduct ulna during pronation 97
Which muscles of the arm are innervated by the musculocutaneus nerve? Biceps brachii, coracobrachialis, and some of brachialis 98
Which muscles of the arm are innervated by the radial nerve? Triceps brachii, anconeus, and some of the brachialis 99
What are the three boundaries of the cubital fossa? Superficial, medial, and lateral 100
What is the function of the superficial boundary of cubital fossa? Connects medial and lateral epicondyle of humerus 101
What is the function of the medial boundary cubital fossa? Mass of flexor muscles of the forearm arise from the common flexor attachement on the medial epicondyle; more specifically pronator teres 102
What is the function of the lateral boundary of the cubital fossa? Mass of extensor muscles of the forarem arise from lateral epicondyle and supraepicondlyer ridge, specifically the brachioradialis 103
Which muscles form the floor of the cubital fossa? The brachialis and supinator 104
What forms the roof of the cubital fossa? Brachial and antebrachial fascia 105
What arteries are found in the cubital fossa? Terminal part of brachial artery and the commencement of its terminal braches, the radial and ulnar arteries 106
Where does the brachial artery lay? Between the biceps tendon and median nerve 107
Where is the radial nerve located? Deep between muscles forming the lateral boundary of the fossa and the brachialis, dividing into superficial and deep branches 108
What are the other contents of the cubital fossa? Deep accompanying veins of arteries, biceps brachii tendon, median nerve, radial nerve 109
What lays superficial to the cubital fossa? Subcutaneous tissue, median cubital vein, medial and lateral cutaneous nerves of the forearm, related to the basicalla and cephalic veins 110
Where does the arm extend from? From the shoulder to the elbow 111
What are the two types of movements in the arm? Flexion and extension, pronation and supination 112
Where does the chief action of the arm take place? At the elbow point 113
Which muscles of the arm are stronger flexors or extensors? Flexors 114
How many layers of muscles are in the anterior compartment of the forearm? Three 115
What are the layers of muscles in the anterior compartment of the forearm? Superficial, intermediate, and deep 116
What are the muscles of the superficial layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm? Pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris 117
What are the muscles of the intermediate layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm? Flexor digitorum superficialis 118
What are the muscles of the deep layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm? Flexor digitorm profundus, flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadratus 119
What muscles are innervated by the median nerve? Pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor digitorum superficialis 120
What muscles are innervated by the ulnar nerve? Flexor carpi ulnaris, medial part of flexor digitorum profundus 121
What muscles are innervated by the anterior interosseous nerve from the median nerve? Lateral part of the flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadratus 122
What is the action of pronator teres? Pronates and flexes forearm at the elbow 123
What is the action of the flexor carpi radialis? Flexes and abducts the hand at the wrist 124
What is the action of the palmaris longus? Flexes hand at the wrist and tenses palmar aponeurosis 125
What is the action of the flexor carpi ulnaris? Flexes and adducts hand at the wrist 126
What is the action of the flexor digitorum superficialis? Flexes middle phalanges at the proximal interphalangeal joints of the middle gour digits, flexes proximal phalanges at the metacarpophalangeal joints 127
What is the action of the flexor digitorum profundus? Medial part: flexes distal phalanges 4 and 5 at distal interphalangeal joints; lateral part: flexes distal phalanges 2 and 3 at the distal interphalangeal joints 128
What is the action of the flexor pollicis longus? Flexes phalanges of the first digit (thumb) 129
What is the action of the pronator quadratus? Pronates forearm, bind radius and ulna together 130
What fascia covers the flexor forearm? Antebrachial fascia 131
What does the antebrachial fascia turn into at the level of the wrist? Flexor retinaculum (forms roof of the carpal tunnel) 132
What are the two layers of the flexor retinaculum? Volar carpal ligament and transverse carpal ligament 133
How many carpal bones are there? Eight 134
What are the eight carpal bones? Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium 135
Which carpal bone is displaced in carpal tunnel syndrome? Lunate; loosening of the ligaments 136
Which part of the flexor retinaculum makes the roof of the carpal tunnel? Transverse carpal ligament 137
Which part of the flexor retinaculum makes the floor of the carpal tunnel? Carpal bones 138
What does the carpal tunnel attach to medially and laterally? Laterally: scaphoid bone; medially: hamate and pisiform 139
Which nerves act of the anterior forearm? Median nerve, ulna nerve, and minor attachment from the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (continuation of the musculocutaneus nerve) 140
What are the blood vessels in the forearm? From the brachial artery splits into the cubital fossa into two branches the radial artery and ulnar artery 141
What does the median nerve run deep to in the anterior forearm? Two heads of the pronator teres, and flexor digitorum superficialis 142
What is the branch of the median nerve in the anterior forearm? Anterior interosseous 143
What structures pass through carpal tunnel? Median nerve plus nine tendons 144
Tendons from which muscles pass through the carpal tunnel? Flexor digitorum superficialis, and flexor digitorum profundus 145
At the level of the the wrist which muscles foes the median nerve pass between? Flexor digitorum superficialis, and flexor digitorum profundus 146
Which branch of the median nerve branches off before the median nerve enters the carpal tunnel? Palmar cutaneous branch 147
Is the palmar cutaneous nerve affected by carpal tunnel syndrome? No, it does not travel through the carpal tunnel to the hand 148
How many muscles does the ulnar nerve supply at the level of the forearm? One and a half 149
What is the first muscle that the radial nerve supplies in the forearm? Brachioradialis 150
Which muscles does the superficial branch of the radial nerve innervate in the forearm? None 151
Which branch of the radial nerve innervates the hand? Superficial branch innervates the lateral side of dorsal aspect of the hand except the web between the first and second digit 152
How many layers make up the posterior compartment of the forearm? Two 153
What are the layers of the posterior compartment of the forearm? Superficial layer, deep layer, (and outcropping muscles of deep layer) 154
What are the six muscles of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm? Brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor capri radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digitorum minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris 155
What are the five muscles of the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm? Supinator, extensor indicis, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis 156
Which muscles of the posterior compartment of the forearm are innervated by the radial nerve? Brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus 157
Which muscles of the posterior compartment of the forearm are innervated by the deep branch of the radial nerve? Capri radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digitorum minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris, supinator 158
Which muscles of the posterior compartment of the forearm are innervated by the posterior interosseous nerve continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve? Extensor indicis, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis 159
What are the three types of instrinsic muscles of the hand? Thenar muscles, hypothenar muscles, short muscles 160
What are the thenar intrinsic muscles of the hand? Opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis(superficial and deep head), adductor pollicis (oblique and transverse head) 161
What are the hypothenar muscles of the intrinsic hand? Abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, opponens digiti 162
What are the short muscles of the intrinsic hand? Lumbricals (1st and 2nd & 3rd and 4th ), dorsal interossei 1st-4th, palmar interossei 1st-3rd 163
Which muscles of the intrinsic hand adduct the digits? Dorsal interossei 1st-4th and palmar interossei 1st-3rd 164
Which muscles of the intrinsic hand are innervated by the median nerve and reccurent branch of median nerve? Opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, superficial head of flexor pollicis,1st and 2nd lumbricals 165
Which muscles of the intrinsic hand are innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve? Deep head of the flexor pollicis, adductor pollicis, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, opponens digiti, 3rd and 4th lumbricals, dorsal inerossei 1st-4th, palmer interossei 1st-3rd 166
How many intrinsic muscles are there in the dorsal hand? None 167
What is the main action of the thenar muscle? Act on the thumb 168
What is the main action of the hypothenar muscle? Act on the pinky 169
Which hypothenar muscle does not act on the pinky? Palmaris brevis 170
What does the radial branch split into after the superficial branch of the radial nerve enters the dorsal aspect of the hand? Digital branches and forms dorsal digital nerves 171
What do the dorsal digital nerves supply? The skin of the hand from the level of the wrist to the PIP joints 172
Where does the superficial branch of the radial nerve pass? Superior to flexor retinaculum 173
Where does the deep branch of the radial nerve supply? Extrinsic muscles of the hand 174
What does the radial nerve travel by in the forearm? Brachioradialis and extensor carpi radialis longus 175
What does the radial nerve travel with? Profunda brachii deep artery of arm in musculospinal groove 176
Where is the location of the injury typically for nerve palsy? Elbow or wrist 177
What will result from damage to the superficial branch of the radial nerve? Sensory loss 178
Which extrinsic muscles of the hand are innervated by the deep branch of the radial nerve? Extensor digitorum communis, extensor digiti minimi, extensor indicis proprius, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis 179
Which bone of the hand is most frequently fractured? Scaphoid bone 180
What is the immediate lateral and medial boundary of the anatomical snuff box? Lateral: extensor pollicis brevis ; medial: extensor pollicis longus 181
What is the most lateral muscles of the anatomical snuff box? Abductor pollicis longus 182
What are the contents of the anatomical snuff box? Trapezium, scaphoid, radial artery, cephalic vein 183
What is the threat of fracturing scaphoid bone? Threat to rupturing the radial artery 184
Which muscles do the median nerve innervate in the hand? 2LOAFs: lateral 2 lumbricals, opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis (superficial head) 185
Which branch of the median nerve enters the hand without passing through the capral tunnel? Palmar cutaneous nerve 186
How does the palmer cutaneous nerve enter the hand? Passes superior to the flexor retinaculum What does the palmer cutanues neve supply?
What does the median nerve in the hand split into? 5 volar branches (called volar palmer or volar digital branches) 188
What do the volar digital branches supply? Lateral two lumbricals, and then the skin aEnletveartioiorna&nddpeopsrteesrsiiornsternalclavicular ligament Protraction & retraction 189
Do the volar digital branches have motor or sensory function? Both 190
How does median nerve injury at the elbow region present? Sign of benediction; thumb, index, and middle finger does not flex 191
What sensory damage occurs with median nerve injury? Sensory loss to radial side of palm and sensory loss to digits lateral to the center line of the ring finger 192
What muscles become paralyzed with a median nerve injury? 2LOAF 193
Which muscles do the ulnar nerve supply in the intrinsic hand? All except 2LOAF: deep head of flexor pollicis brevis, adductor pollicis, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, opponens digiti, 3rd and 4th lumbricals, dorsal interossei 1-4, palmer interossei 1-3 194
Which muscles do the superficial terminal nerve supply? Palmaris brevis first then turns cutaneous 195
What does the deep branch of the ulnar nerve supply? Hypothenar muscles 196
What type of joint is the sternoclavicular joint? Saddle type of synovial joint but acts as a ball and socket 197
What is the structure of the sternoclavicular joint? Sternal end of clavicle and manubrium of sternum 198
What is the uniqueness of the sternoclavicular joint? Fibrocartilagonus disc in the middle of the joint that divides the joint into two synovial capsules 199
What are the ligaments of the sternoclavicular joint Anterior and posterior sternalclavicular ligament and costoclavicular ligament (cartilage of first rib to the sternal end of the clavicle) 200
Which muscles stabilize the sternoclavicular joint? None 201
What are the movements of the sternoclavicular joint? Elevation, depression, protraction, retraction and circumduction 202
What is the nerve supply of the sternoclavicular joint? Medial supraclavicular nerve and nerve to subclavious 203
What type of joint is the acromiocalvicular joint? Plane type of synovial joint 204
What is the structure of the acromiocalvicular joint? Acromial end of clavicle and acromion of scapula 205
What are the support ligaments of the acromiocalvicular joint? Acromioclavicular ligament, coracoclavicular ligament (conoid ligament and trapezoid ligament) 206
Which ligament of the acromiocalvicular joint stabilizes the joint anteriorly and posteriorly? Acromioclavicular ligament 207
Which ligament of the acromiocalvicular joint stabilizes the joint superiorly and inferiorly? Coracoclavicular ligament 208
Under what circumstances would you have a rupture of the AC ligament? High school football player 209
What is AC joint damage called? Acromicoclavicular sublaxation (shoulder separation) clavicle goes up 210
What are the movements of the acromioclavicular joint? Rotation with assistance from the SC joint 211
What type of joint is the glenohumeral joint? Ball and socket type of synovial joint 212
What is the structure of the glenohumeral joint? Head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula 213
What is the glenoid labrum? Fibrocartilage rim around margin of glenoid cavity to protect from bone on bone 214
What are the ligaments that support the glenohumeral joint? Glenohumeral ligament(superior, middle, and inferior), coracohumeral ligament, coracoacromial ligament, and transversehumeral ligament(from greater tubercle to lesser tubercle) 215
Which ligament of the glenohumeral joint prevents superior dislocation of the head of the humerus? Coracoacromial ligament 216
Which muscles support the glenohumeral joint? Rotator cuff muscles (SITS) supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis 217
What is the role of the rotator cuff muscles on the glenohumeral join? Keeps the head of the humerus in the glenoid fossa and give the joint dynaic stabilty 218
Which tendon supports the glenohumeral joint? Tendon of the long head of the biceps bracii 219
What is the movement of the glenohumeral joint? Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, circumduction 220
Which nerves supply the glenohumeral joint? Suprascapular, axillary, and lateral pectoral nerves 221
What are the three joints of the elbow joint? Humeralulna joint, humeralradial joint, proximal (superior) radialulnar joint 222
What type of joint is the elbow joint? Hinge joint 223
What is the movement of the elbow joint? Flexion and extension 224
What ligaments support the humeralulna joint? Ulna collateral joint(extends form medial epicondyle of humerus to coranoid process of olcraneon) also called triangular collateral joint 225
What are the three bands of the ulna collateral ligament (also called medial collateral ligament)? Anterior cord like band (strongest), posterior fan like band (weakest), intermediate slender oblique band (deepens the socket for the trochlea of the humerus 226
What happens if the medial collateral ligament is cut? Carrying angle increases, and abduction is possible 227
Which ligament supports the humeraradial joint? Radial collateral also called lateral collateral joint 228
What is the primary movement of the humeraradial joint? Rotation-pronation and supination of the forearm 229
What happens if the lateral collateral ligament is torn? Abnormal adduction of the elbow (tennis elbow) 230
How can a torn lateral collateral ligament present? Inflammation of the radial collateral ligament, Inflammation of the bone on which the ligament is inserted, inflammation of the small underlying bursa, or strain of the common extensor tension which is inserted in that area(tendonitis) 231
What is the movement of the proximal radialulnar joint? One degree of freedom: pronation and supination 232
Which ligaments support the proximal radialulnar joint? Anular ligament of the radius and interosseous membrane 233
What is the articulation of the elbow joint? Trochela and capitulum of the humerus articulate with the trochlear notch of the ulna and superior aspect of the head of the radius 234
What is the function of the anular ligament? Holds the head of the radius in the radial notch of the ulna, the interosseous membrane between the ulna and radius divides the forearm into anterior and posterior compartment 235
Who is most prone to pulled elbow? Children, radial head is underdeveloped and can escape from the anular ligament 236
What is the function of the humeroulnar joint? Trochlea rotates on the trochlear notch of the ulna 237
The superficial layer of the forearm comes from which aspect of the forearm in general? Lateral aspect of forearm 238
Flexor muscles or the forearm origionate with which aspect of the forearm in general? Medial aspect of the forearm (medial epicondyle ridge and ulna) 239
What does the axillary nerve innervate on the shoulder? Teres minor and deltoid (supplied skin on deltoid) 240
What is the superior and inferior border of the quadrangular space? Superior: teres minor; inferior: teres major 241
What is the superior and inferior border of the triangular space? Superior: teres minor; inferior: teres major 242
What is the shared boundary of the quadrangular and triangular space? Long head of the triceps brachii (lateral head of triangular space, medial head of the quadrangular space) 243
What is the lateral boundary of the quadrangular space? Surgical neck of the humerus 244
What passes through the quadrangular space? Axillary nerve and posterior humeral circumflex artery 245
What passes through the triangular space? Circumflex scapular artery 246
Where are deep veins usually found? Buried in the muscles 247
Where are superficial veins usually found? Drain from the hand 248
What is the path of veins? Superficial veins drain from the hand, at the level of the forearm the veins drain into cephalic and basalic veins, then median cubital vein at anterior aspect of the elbow (cubital fossa)- basalic and cephalic come up and drain into axillary vein 249
Where do all veins from the human upper extremity drain into? Axillary vein
Path of axillary artery? axillary artery continues until boundary of teres major name changes to brachial arteryàbiracial artery travels on the anterior humerusàaround the area of the cubital fossa it breaks into radial and ulna arteryà
Paths of Radial and ulnar arteries? ulna A splits to common interosseous A which then splits into the ant and post interosseous the position of the split is variable; on the left is the left subclavian comes directly from arch of the aorta there is no brachiocephalic artery on the L side
Created by: beccalu89