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Chapter 9 Medical Terminology

agglutination the clumping of cells as a result of interaction with specific antibodies called agglutinins.
albumin a plasma protein. helps maintain blood volume and blood pressure
allergen substance that can produce a hypersensitive reaction in the body.
allergy hypersenstive reaction to normally harmless antigens, most of which are environmental.
anaphylaxis an exaggerated life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction to a previously encountered antigen.
anisocytosis an abnormal condition of the blood characterized by red blood cells of variable and abnormal size
antibodies substances produced by the body in response to bacteria, viruses, or other foreign substances.
antigens a substance, usually a protein, that causes the formation of an antibody and reacts specifically with that antibody.
ascites an abnormal intraperitoneal (within the peritoneal cavity)accumulation of a fluid containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes.
Anemia an(without) emia(blood condition) decrease in hemoglobin in the blood resulting in a deficiency of oxygen being delivered to the cells.
Aplastic anemia a(without) plast/o(formation) ic(pertaining to) aplastic anemia is a lack of formation of the blood elements.
MCH Mean cell hemoglobin
Hemolytic anemia hem/o(blood) lytic(destruction) hemolytic anemia is extreme reduction in circulating RBCs due to their destruction.
MCV Mean cell volume
Iron deficiency anemia deficiency of hemoglobin level due to a lack of iron in the body.
VLDL Very-low-density lipoprotein
Pernicious anemia from a deficiency of mature RBCs and the formation and circulation of megaloblasts (large nucleated, immature, poorly functioning RBCs) with marked poikilocytosis (RBC shape variation) and anisocytosis(RBC size variation)
diff. diag Differential diagnosis
Sickle cell anemia chronic form of hemolytic anemia in which the RBCs become shaped like a crescent in the presence of low oxygen concentration
Granulocytosis granul/o (granules) cyt/o (cell) –osis(condition) – abnormally elevated number of granulocytes in the circulating blood as a reaction to any variety of inflammation or infection.
segs Segmented neutrophils
Hemochromatosis hem/o(blood) chromat/o(color) –osis(condition) – a rare iron metabolism disease characterized by iron deposits throughout the body, usually as a complication of one of the hemolytic anemias.
IgA,IgD,IgE,IgG,IgM Immunoglobulin A,D,E,G,M
Hemophilia hem/o (blood) phil/o(attraction to)-ia(condition) involves different hereditary inadequacies of coagulation factors resulting in prolonged bleeding times.
Hemophilia A most common form, results in traumatic or spontaneous bleeding
Hemophilia B Christmas disease, deficiency of a coagulation factor called factor IX.
Leukemia leuk/o(white) –emia(blood condition) excessive uncontrolled increase of immature WBCs in the blood eventually leading to infection, anemia, and thrombocytopenia (decreased number of platelets)
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) (immature granulocytes)
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) (immature lymphocytes)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) (immature/mature granulocytes in bloodstream and bone marrow)
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) exceptional amounts of lymphocytes in the spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes that are abnormal, small and mature.
Multiple myeloma(plasma cell myeloma) myel/o(bone marrow,spinal cord)-oma(tumor)A malignant plasma cell neoplasm, multiple myeloma causes and increase in the number of both mature and immature plasma cells—which often entirely replace the bone marrow and destroy the skeletal structure.
Polycythemia vera poly(many)-cythemia(condition involving cells of the blood) and increase in the number of RBCs, granulocytes, and thrombocytes—leading to an increase in blood volume and viscosity (thickness)
Purpura purpur/o(purple)-a(noun ending) a collection of blood beneath the skin in the form of pinpoint hemorrhages appearing as red-purple skin discolorations.
Thalassemia a hereditary form of hemolytic anemia in which the alpha or beta hemoglobin chains are defective and the production of hemoglobin is deficient, creating hypochromic microcytic RBCs.
Direct antiglobulin test (Coomb’s test) used to discover the presence of antierythrocyte antibodies present in the blood of an Rh negative woman.
Bleeding time time required for bleeding to stop. (the Ivy method) 1-9 minutes is normal.
Blood transfusion an administration of blood or blood component to an individual.
Bone marrow biopsy microscopic exam of bone marrow tissue, to reveal number, shape and size of RBCs and WBCs and platelet precursors.
Bone marrow transplant a donor’s bone marrow cells are infused intravenously into the recipient.
Complete blood cell count a series of tests performed on peripheral blood, which screens for problems in the hematologic system as well as several other organ systems
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measures the rate at which red blood cells settle out in a tube of unclotted blood.
Hematocrit RBC percentage in the total blood volume.
Hemoglobin hem/o(blood) –globin(containing protein) test – measures concentration. Hemoglobin is needed to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Lipid profile measures the lipids in the bloods.
Partial thromboplastin time to evaluate the common pathway and system of clot formation within the body.
Platelet count platelets per cubic millimeter of blood.
Prothrombin time to evaluate the common pathway and extrinsic system of clot formation.
Red blood cell count (RBC) circulating number of RBCs in 1mm(to the third) of peripheral blood.
Red blood cell morphology exam of the RBC on a stained blood smear in order to identify the form and shape of the RBCs.
Reticulocyte count the number of immature erythrocytes in a blood specimen.
PA Pernicious anemia
Rouleaux aggregation of RBCs viewed through the microscope
AHF Antihemophilic factor (blood coagulationfactor VIII)
Schilling test analysis for pernicious anemia.
BMT Bone marrow transplantation
White blood cell count (WBC) circulating number of WBCs in 1mm(to the third) of peripheral blood.
eos. eosinophil
White blood cell differential percentage of each type of WBCs in 1mm(to the third) of peripheral blood drawn for the WBC count.
Hct hematocrit
Ab antibody
Ag antigen
ABO Blood groups, A,AB, B and O
AHF Antihemophilic factor (blood coagulationfactor VIII)
AHG Antihemolytic globulin
HDL High-density lipoprotein
LDL Low-density lipoprotein
CLL Cholesterol-lowering lipid chroniclymphocytic leukemia
PT Prothrombin time
PTT Partial thromboplastin time
Hbg Hemoglobin (also Hgb)
basophil a granulocytic white blood cell with cytoplasmic granules that stain blue when exposed to a basic dye.
billirubin orange-yellow pigment of bile formed by breakdown of hemoglobin in redblood cells.
coagulation process of transforming a liquid into a solid, especially of the blood.
corpuscle any cell of the body;red or white blood cell.
differentiation process in development when unspecialized cells or tissues are modified and altered to become specialized.
syscrasia abnormal condition of the blood or bone marrow, such as leukemia, aplastic anemia, or prenatal Rh incompatibility.
edema abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues.
electrophoresis movement of charged suspended particles through a liquid medium in response to changes in an electric field.
enzyme an organic substance that inititates and accelerates a chemical reaction.
eosinophil a granulocytic, bilobed leukocyte larger than a neutrophil with large numbers of cytoplasmic granules that stain with the acid dye eosin.
erythremia abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells.
erythroblast immature red blood cell.
erythrocyte mature red blood cell.
erythropoiesis process of red blood cell production.
erythropoietin hormone released into the blood stream in response to anoxia(lack of oxygen)
fibrin stringy, insoluble protein that is the substance of a blood clot.
fibringen plasma protein converted into fibrin by thrombin in the presence of calcium ions.
globulin plsma protein made to help in the synthesis of antibodies.
granulocyte type of leukocyte with cytoplasmic granules.
heme pigmented, iron-containing, nonprotein portion of the hemoglobin molecule.
hemoglobin complex protein-iron compound in the blood that carries oxygen to the cells from the lungs and carbon dioxide away from the cells to the lungs.
hemolysis breakdown of red blood cells and the release of hemoglobin
hemostasis to stop bleeding by mechanical or chemical means or by the complex coagulation process of the body.
heparin naturally occurring anticlotting factor present in the body.
hyperalbuminemia increased level of alumin in the blood.
hyperbilirubinemia greater than normal amounts of the bile pigment, bilirubin, in the blood.
hyperlipemia excessive level of blood fats.
leukocytopenia abnormal decrease in number of white blood cells to fewer than 5,000 cells per cubic millimeter.
megakaryocyte extremely large bone marrow cell.
monocyte large mononuclear leukocyte.
myeloid pertaining to the bone marrow or the spinal cord.
neutrophil a multilobed nucleus granular leukocyte that stains easily with neutral dyes.
pancytopenia a reduction in the number of the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
plasma the watery, straw-colored, fluid portion of the lymph and the blood in which the leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets are suspended.
platelet clotting cell; thrombocyte.
prothrombin plasma protein precursor of thrombin.
reticulocyte immature erythrocyte
septicemia systemic infection with pathogens are circulating in the bloodstream.
seroconversion change in serologic tests from negative to positive as antibodies develop in reaction to an infection or vaccine.
serum (blood serum). clear, thin, and sticky fluid portion of the blood that remains after coagulation. Serum contains no blood cells, platelets or fibrinogen.
splenomegaly enlargement of the spleen.
thrombin enzyme formed from prothrombin, calcium, and thromboplastin in plasma during the clotting process.
thrombocyte clotting cell;platelet
thrombocytopenia abnormal hematologic condition with reduced number of platelets.
thromboplastin substance that initiates the clotting process.
thrombus clot
AML acute myelogenous leukemia
CML chronic lymphocytic leukemia
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate
mono. monocyte
lymph lymphocyte
acquired immunity immunity that is a result of the body developing the ability to defend itself against a specific agent(having had the disease or immunization).
adenoids masses of lymphatic tissue located near the opening of the nasal cavity into the pharynx.
hypersensitivity excessive reaction to a particular stimulus.
immune reaction(response) reaction that produces antibodies to destroy invading antigens.
lymph interstitial fluid picked up by the lymphatic capillaries and returned to the blood.
lymphadenopathy disorder of the lymph nodes or vesses.
lymphocyte agranulocytic leukocytes originating from fetal stem cells and developing in the bone marrow.
macrophage phagocytic cell in the defense against infection.
natural immunity genetic immunity
phagocytosis process of cell engulfing and destroying bacteria
resistance body's ability to counteract the effects of pathogens.
T cells mature in the Thymus. important to the immune response.
tonsils lymphatic tissue located in a protective ring just under the mucous membrane, surrounding the mouth and back of throat.
lymphaden/o lymph gland
lymphangi/o lymph vessel
sarc/o flesh
CT(CAT) scan collection of X-ray images taken from various angles.
western blot test that detects the presence of the antibodies to HIV.
ELISA-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test used for screening for an antibody to the AIDS virus.
lymphangiogram X-ray assessment of the lymphatic system
ARC AIDS-related complex
AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
CMV cytomegalovirus
EBV Epstein-Barr virus
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Histo histology
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
HSV herpes simplex virus
ITP idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
KS Kaposi's sarcoma
SLE systemic lupus erythematosus
Created by: kcannon