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Anat-Respiratory Sys

gas exchange function (r. system) adds oxygen and removes carbon dioxide waste
Regulation of blood pH function (r. system) altered by changing blood carbon dioxide levels (~70% of carbon dioxide is carried as carbonic acid dissolved in blood)
voice production function (r. system) movement of air past folds makes sound and speech
olfaction function (r. system) smell occurs when airborne molecules are drawn into the nasal cavity and sensed by specialized epithelial cells there
protection function (r. system) protects against microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, chemicals, dust, etc) by preventing entry and removing them
five functions of the respiratory system gas exchange, regulation of blood pH, voice production, olfaction, and protection
divisions of the respiratory system upper tract and lower tract
parts of the upper tract nose, pharynx (throat), and associated structures (other parts in the tract)
parts of the lower tract larynx (voice box), trachea, bronchi, lungs
parts of the nose external nose, nostril (external naris), nasal cavity, choana, nasal conchae, opening of auditory tube, paranasal sinuses
external nose structure fleshy with a little hyaline cartilage in the middle; air enters via nostrils
nasal cavity structure made up of three nasal conchae on each side projecting towards the midline
nasal conchae structure "bone shelves" covered with pseudostratified epithelial tissue with cilia that produce mucus
functions of the nasal cavity passageway for air, cleans the air, humidifies and warms air, smell
paranasal sinuses location/structure found in some bones (ex. frontal, sphenoid); extra spaces connected to the nasal cavity and lined with epithelium
paranasal sinuses function add to cleaning, warming, and humidification of air
internal nares alias/location aka: choana; opening between the nasal cavity and the pharynx
passageway for air function (n. cavity) air travels over the surface of the conchae
cleans the air function (n. cavity) cleaning begins at the nostrils (nose hairs) and more takes place when air passes over the nasal conchae (mucus traps particles and sweeps them down to the stomach to be destroyed)
structure for humidification and warming of air (n. cavity) nasal conchae
humidification and warming of air function (n. cavity) typically colder and drier outside the body than inside; air is moistened by mucus and warmed by the blood supply from the body core that circulates in the walls of the nasal cavity
structure for smell (n. cavity) olfactory epithelium in the roof of the nasal cavity
pharynx function common opening for digestive and respiratory systems
three regions of the pharynx nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
nasopharynx location/structure most superior, from the internal naris to the lower edge of the soft palate; area where the auditory tube connects
nasopharynx function (usually) carries only air
oropharynx location from the inferior edge of the soft palate to roughly the edge of the hyoid bone; posterior to the mouth cavity
oropharynx function transfers air OR food
laryngopharynx location from the hyoid(ish) to the beginning of the esophagus; right next to the larynx
laryngopharynx function transports air OR food
epiglottis structure/function moveable, tongue-shaped piece of cartilage; keeps food out of the voice box when swallowing
larynx structure/location cartilaginous tube on top of the trachea; gets its shape and integrity from cartilage; houses the vocal cords
thyroid cartilage function contains the "Adam's apple" forms the wall of the voice box
larynx functions maintain open passageway for air movement, sound production
movement of epiglottis deflected across the voice box by incoming food
false vocal cords location/function more superior; don't produce sound, help you to close off the top of the larynx when you swallow
true vocal cords function/movement primary source of sound production; vibrate due to passing air
why do men have different sounding voices? they have lower frequency voices due to longer vocal cords (different amount of tension)
vocal cords structure made of elastic connective tissue, connected to muscles that move them in or out
sound production via the vocal cords muscles bring the cords together to make a small slit that makes noise when air is forced through it
trachea location from the larynx to down between the lungs
trachea structure lined with pseudostratified (ciliated) epithelium, reinforced with c-shaped cartilage rings (on anterior and lateral sides, help to keep the passageway open), dense regular connective tissue between the rings for flexibility
branches of the trachea divides to form left and right primary bronchi (sing, bronchus)
carina location/structure most inferior tracheal cartilage, covered with very sensitive epithelial tissue that stimulates the cough reflex
carina function stimulates the cough reflex when particles get to its level in order to forcefully remove them
trachealis muscle location between the trachea and the esophagus
trachealis muscle function decreases diameter (narrows) of the trachea when it contracts (to cough) in order to increase the force of the air being pushed out, making it more likely to pick up/dislodge particles in the trachea
two zones of the lower respiratory tract conducting zone, respiratory zone
conducting zone location/function more superior, conducts air (no gas exchange)
respiratory zone location/function more inferior, gas exchange occurs here
parts of the larynx epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, true vocal cords, false vocal cords
parts of the conducting zone larynx, trachea, primary bronchi to terminal bronchioles
parts of the respiratory zone respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
Created by: Jean-O