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Chapter 15

TermDefinition
Libel False written or published statements that damage a person's reputation. Pg 861
Slander False speech that damages a person's reputation. Pg. 874
Defamation False expression that injures a person's reputation. Pg. 852
Loving v Virginia A civil rights decision of the U.S. Supreme Court, which invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage. Pg. 461
Wiretapping an act or instance of tapping telephone or telegraph wires for evidence or other information. Pg. 879
Affirmative Action Policies that give preference to women or minorities for jobs, promotions, admission to schools, or other benefits, in order to make up for past or current discrimination. Pg. 844
Prior Restraint Censorship of information before it is published. Pg. 869
Secular nonreligious; not associated with any faith based organization. Pg. 873
Commercial Speech Speech where the speaker is more likely to be engaged in commerce and the intended audience is commercial, actual, or potential consumers. Pg. 849
Substantive Due Process the principle requiring that a government action not unreasonably interfere with a fundamental or basic right. Pg. 876
Gag Order An order by a judge barring the press from publishing certain types of information about a pending court case. Pg. 857
Seditious Speech speech urging the resistance to lawful authority or advocating the overthrow of the government. Pg. 873
Graven Image an idol or physical object of worship. Pg. 857
Selective Incorporation the process by which the Supreme Court decided on a case-by-case basis which federal rights also applied to the states. Pg. 873
Rational Basis a standard of judicial review that examines whether a legislature had a reasonable and not an arbitrary reason for enacting a particular statute. Pg. 461
Sequester to hold in isolation. Pg. 873
Establishment Clause guarantee that prohibits state and federal governments from setting up churches, passing laws aiding one or all religions or favoring one religion over another,or passing laws requiring attendance at any church or belief in any religious state. Pg. 855
Procedural Due Process the fair administration of justice. Pg. 869
Fourteenth Amendment Provisions and importance major provisions TheCitizenshipClausegranted citizenship to all persons born United States.TheDueProcessClausestates can not deny any personlife, liberty/property, without dueprocess of law. EqualProtectionClausenotdeny to any person within itsjurisdictio
Engel v Vale No prayer can be forced in a school by teacher and dun violates the establishment clause. Pg. 455
Fighting Words Words Spoken face-to-face that are likely to cause immediate violence. Pg. 856
Reynolds v United States U.S. Supreme Court case that held that religious duty was not a defense to a criminal indictment. Pg. 457
Substantial Relationship Clause A standard of judicial review that examines whether there is a close connection between the law or practice and its purpose; specifically, laws that classify based on gender must serve an important governmental purpose. Pg. 876
Roe v Wade Decision by the U.S. Supreme Court on the issue of abortion. ruled unconstitutional a state law that banned abortions except to save the life of the mother. Pg. 476
" a wall of separation between church and state" Phrase used by Thomas Jefferson and others expressing an understanding of the intent and function of the Establishment Clause and Free Exercise Clause of 1st Amendment to the Constitution of the U.S.
How can government guarantee both freedom of the press and the right to a fair speedy trial? The government could provide facts on the trial so as to cut down on the speculation aspect of press and media attention
Created by: 7gilmroj