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Ch. 6

Contractility shorten with force
Excitability respond to a stimulus.
Extensibility stretched
Elasticity recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched.
Connective Tissue sheath Epimysium
Connective tissue outside of the epimysium Fascia
When a muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles muscle fascicle
Muscle fascicles are surrounded by what kind of loose connective tissue? perimysium
Fasciculi composed of single muscle cells called? fibers
Each fiber surrounded by a connective tissue sheath Endomysium
Cytoplasm of each fiber Myofibrils
a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other Myofibrils
Thin myofilaments Actin
Thick Myofilaments Myosin
Extends from one Z-line to the next Z-line Sarcomere
the darker central region in each sarcomere. A-band
the center of each sarcomere is another light area called H-zone
On each side of the Z line is a light area called I-Band
myosin myofilaments are attached in the center of the sarcomere at a dark staining band called M-line
outside of most cell membranes Positively charged
inside of cell membranes Negatively Charged
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers Motor Neurons
The enlarged nerve terminal, presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell Synaptic cleft
The muscle fiber postsynaptic terminal
Each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles that secrete a neurotransmitter acetylcholine
The acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell is rapidly broken down by an enzyme acetylcholinesterase
Anaerobic Respiration without oxygen
Aerobic Respiration with oxygen
Equal Distance Isometric
Equal tension Isotonic
the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement. Insertion
most stationary end of the muscle Origin(head)
Raises eyebrows Frontalis
Blinks and closes eye Orbicularis Oculi
Closes and protrudes lips Orbicularis oris
closes jaw Temporalis
Raises corner of mouth Zygomaticus
closes jaw Masseter
Compresses cheek, holds food between teeth during chewing Buccinator
Flexes neck; laterally rotates head Sternocleidomastoid
Tenses skin of neck Platysma
Adducts and flexes humerus Pectoralis major
flexes vertebral column Rectus abdominis
Flexes and rotates vertebral column External oblique
Flexes elbow and supinates forearm biceps brachii
flexes elbow brachialis
abducts arm(shoulder) deltoid
flexes hip iliopsoas
adduct and medially rotate thigh Adductor muscles
Flexes thigh on hip Sartorius
All extend knee; rectus femoris also flexes hip on tigh Quadriceps group
Doriflexes and inverts foot Tibialis anterior
Extends toes Extensor digitorum
Plantar flex and evert foot fibularis muscles
Raises, retracts, and rotates scapula (mid shoulder and neck) Trapezius
Extends and adducts humerus Latissimus Dorsi
Extends and laterally flexes spine Erector Spinae
Flexes spine laterally; extends spine Quadratus Lumborum
Abducts humerus Deltoid
Extends elbow Triceps brachii
Flexes wrists and abducts hand Flexor Carpi radialis
Flexes wrists and adducts hand Flexor carpi ulnaris
Flexes wrist and fingers Flexor digitorium superficialis
Extends wrist and abducts hand Extensor carpi radialis
extends fingers Extensor digitorium
Extends hip Gluteus Maximus
Abducts thigh; steadies pelvis during walking Gluteus medius
flex knee and extend hip Hamstring muscles
Plantar flexes foot and flexes knee Gastrocnemius
Plantar flexes foot Soleus
contract quickly and fatigue quickly Fast twitch fibers
contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue. Slow twitch fibers
results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells. Muscle fatigue
is the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose Oxygen Debt
Whenever the muscle remains contracted without relaxing Tetany
Chewing Mastication
what muscles are involved in Mastication? Temporalis and Masseter
Changes shape of tongue Intrinsic
Moves the tongue extrinsic
Muscles that work together Synergists
Muscles that work opposite of each other Antagonist



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