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chapter 6 muscles

the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force contractility
the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus excitability
the ability to be stretched extensibility
the ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched elasticity
muscles help to produce ____________ essential for maintenance of normal body temperature heat
each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath epimysium
connective tissue located outside the epymysium fascia
muscle composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle ____________ fasciculi
fasciculi is surrounded by loose connective tissue called perimysium
muscle cells are called muscle ___________ fibers
each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called endomysium
the cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with myofibrils
a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other myofibrils
myofibrils consist of 2 major kinds of protein fibers called ________ actin myofilaments & myosin myofilaments
thin myofilaments actin myofilaments
thick myofilaments myosin myofilaments
the basic structural and functional unity of the muscle sacomere
the outside of most cell membranes are _________ charged positively
the inside of a cell membrane is __________ charged negatively
the charge difference across the membrane is called the ____________________ resting membrane potential
the brief reversal back of the charge is called _______________ action potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
each branch that connects to the muscle forms a _____________________ near the center of the cell neuromusclular junction or synapse
single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called ________ motor unit
the enlarged nerve terminal is the presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell is the synaptic cleft
the muscle fiber is the postsynaptic terminal
each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles
synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine
the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction is sliding filament mechanism
contraction of an entire muscle is response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers muscle twitch
muscle fibers will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called threshold
muscle fiber will contract maximally all or none response
the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction is lag phase
the time of contraction is the contraction phase
the time during which the muscle relaxes is the relaxation phase
where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
the increase in number of motor units being activated is called recruitment
____ is needed for energy for muscle contraction ATP
ATP is produced in the mitochondria
ATP degenerates to the more stable ADP
high energy molecule creatine phosphate
without oxygen Anaerobic respiration
with oxygen aerobic respiration
_______ the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose oxygen debt
______ results when ATP is used during contraction muscle fibers
the 2 types of muscle contractions isometric & isotonic
equal distance isometric
equal tension isotonic
constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time muscle tone
contract quickly and fatigue quickly fast twitch fibers
the points of attachment of each muscle are its _____ & _______ origin & insertion
at these attachment points the muscle is connected to the bone by a tendon
(head) the most stationary end of the muscle origin
the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
the portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion is the belly
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements are called synergists
muscles that work in opposition to one another are called antagonists
if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement prime mover
raises the eyebrows occipitofrontalis
closes the eyelids orbicularis oculi
puckers the lips orbicularis oris
flattens the cheeks buccinator
what are the kissing muscles orbicularis oris & buccinator
smiling muscle zygomaticus
sneering levator labii superioris
frowning depressor anguli oris
chewing mastication
how many pairs of mastication muscles are there 4
what the mastication muscles 2 pair pterygoids, temporalis, & masseter
change the shape of the tongue intrinsic tongue muscles
move the tongue extrinsic tongue muscles
lateral neck muscle and prime mover sternocleidomastoid
sheetlike muscle that covers the anterolateral neck platysma
group of muscles on each side of the back erector spinae
muscles that move the thorax thoracic muscles
elevate the ribs during inspiration external intercostals
contract during forced expiration internal intercostals
dome chaped muscle diaphragm
rotates scapula trapezius
pulls scapula anteriorly serratus anterior
adducts and flexes the arm pectoralis major
medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm latissmus dorsi
attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle , and is the major abductor of the upper limb deltoid
extends the forearm triceps brachii
flexes the forearm biceps brachii
flexes and supinates the forearm brachioradialis
flexes the wrist flexor carpi
extends the wrist extensor carpi
flexes the fingers flexor digitorum
extends the fingers extensor digitorum
buttocks gluteus maximus
extends the leg quadriceps femoris
flexes the thigh satorius
posterior thigh muscles hamstring
form the calf muscle gastrocnemius and soleus
Created by: cmiller10001