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Factors that adapt red blood cells to their job of carrying oxygen to the tissues of the body. Flexibility, lack of organelles, large volume to surface area ratio.
What are platelets? Cytoplasmic fragments that assist in blood clotting.
Extrinsic pathway Shorter, faster, 15 seconds after damage, initial clot. Begins with release of tissue factor, more damage = more tissue factor.
Intrinsic pathway Slower, reinforces initial clot. Begins with the activation of proenzymes exposed to collegan fibers at the injury site. Release of platelet factor.
What can compromise the intrinsic pathway? a disease that alters the collagen fiber structure so that platelets do not adhere.
How is blood able to raise the body's temperature? redistributing heat from the body's surface to the internal core.
Without mitochondria, RBC's are relatively inefficient in terms of energy use, but adventageous to RBC function. Why? Because it ensures that any oxygen the RBC's absorb will be delivered to peripheral tissues.
What is the main event of the coagulation phase? Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.
Embolus A drifting clot that is not stuck to the vessel wall. Abnormal mass within blood stream.
Embolism Vascular blockage, when an embolus becomes lodged in and blocks circulation down stream, killing that tissue.
Stroke When an embolus of the arterial system become lodged in capillaries of the brain.
Pulmonary embolism When an embolus form in the venous system is lodged in the capillaries of the lung.
Thrombus A blood clot attached to the vessel wall, because a built up of platelets on the wall has ensued. Lodged between the platelets.
Hypoxia Kidneys try to re-establish homeostasis by releasing erthropoietin.
What is the breakdown product of globular proteins of each hemoglobin molecule? Amino acids
What is the repair mechanism that gradually dissolves a clot? Fibrinolysis
What begins fibrinolysis? the activation of plasminogen
Albumin The primary plasma protein, and responsible for maintaining osmotic pressure.
What makes up plasma? 7% plasma proteins, 1% other solutes, 92% water.
What makes up Whole blood? Plasma 55% and formed elements 45%
What makes up formed elements? Platelets, white blood cells, red blood cells 99.9%
Hematocrit The percentage of whole blood volume contributed by formed elements. (Packed cell volume PCV). 46 in males 42 in females.
Serum The ground substance of blood plasma which clotting agents have been removed.
List the three types of plasma proteins? albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen. 99% of plasma proteins.
Fibrin Insoluble protein fibers that form the basic framework of a blood clot.
What type of blood cell is not capable of mitosis, or any cell division? Red Blood Cells (RBC)
What is the main difference between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in the halting of bleeding? The extrinsic pathway begins outside the bloodstream, while the intrinsic begins inside the bloodstream.
The process that occurs after agglutination is? hemolysis
Steps in a cross reaction Antibodies react with their target antigens causing agglutination (clumping) and hemolysis of the effects RBC's.
Explain blood type Blood type depends on the presence of surface antigens (agglutinogens) on RBC surfaces. The plasma contains antibodies that with react with foreign surface antigens.
Which ABO blood type has neither A, B, or Rh antigens? type O negative
As blood flows through the peripheral tissues, what occurs regarding the hemoglobin molecules of RBC's?
If an erythrocyte makes anti-B of antibodies, what is the surface antigen? Surface antigen A
What can harmfully effect blood clotting? Any factor that lowers plasma calcium ion concentration
What is the main event of the coagulation phase? Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.
White Blood Cells are structurally nucleated and spheroid
RBC's are structurally anucleated and bicomcave
Platelets are structurally anucleated and a cell fragment
The biggest difference between plasma and serum? presence/absence of clotting proteins. Serum has none.
Primary function of RBC's? Carry gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen
What is the formation of red blood cells called? erthropoiesis
What is anemia? A condition in which the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells is reduced, and can be caused by insufficient amounts of vitamin B12
What antibodies does type AB blood have? it does not have anti-A or anti-B antibodies
What determines a person's blood type? presence or absence of specific surface antigens on the plasma membrane
The primary function of white blood cells is to... help defend the body against infection organisms
Primary functions of blood: temperature control, defense, and transporting. not storage.
Type A has what surface antigen? Surface antigen A! type B = surface antigen B, type O no surface antigens.
Created by: iessnorris



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