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Chapter 13

Endocrine system

Endocrine system Helps nervous system with communication and control of the body
Endocrine glands Cells tissues and organs
Quasi endocrine Paracrine and autocrine glands
Endocrine Gladys communicate by Chemical signals
General characteristics of endocrine system Neurons release neurotransmitters into a synapse affecting post synaptic cells
Chemical signal Neurotransmitter hormone
Cells Neurotransmitter glandular epithelium
Specificity of action Receptors on post synaptic cell receptor on target cell
Speed of onset Seconds to hours
Duration of action Very brief unless neuronal activity continues may be brief or my last ayes even if secretion ceases
Larger endocrine glands Pituitary gland thyroid gland pathyroid glands adrenal glands pancreas
Hypothalamus Corticotropin releasing hormone gonadotropin releasing hormone somatostatin growth hormone prolactin release inhibiting hormone prolactin release factor thyrotropin releasing hormone
Anterior pituitary gland Adrencarticatropic hormone follicle stimulating hormone growth hormone luteinizing hormone prolactin thyroid stimulating hormone
Posterior pituitary gland Antidiuretic hornmone oxycocin
Thyroid gland Calcitonin thyroxine trilothyronine
Parathyroid gland Parathyroid hormone
Adrenal medulla Epinephrine norepinephrine
Adrenal cortex Aldosterone cortisol
Pancreas Glucagon insulin somatostatin
Steroid abuse Drop in natural testosterone heart and liver damage breast development in males behavior changes
Growth hormone Used with steroids usually joint pain swelling hard to detect
Erythropoietin Red loading by a hormone produced by the kidneys which stimulates more rbc production heart attacks
Control of hormonal secretion Primary controlled by negative feedback mechanism
Prostaglandins Paracrine substance potent in small amounts
Anterior lobe front Adenohypophysis hypothalamic releasing hormones stimulate cells
Posterior lobe back Neurohypophysis neurosecretory cells extending from hypothalamus release hormones into bloodstream
Hypothalamus (1) Releasing hormone 1, anterior pituitary 2, peripheral endocrine gland 3 last is target cells
Growth hormone gh Stimulates increase in size and rate of division of body cells enchanes movement of amino acids through membranes promotes growth of long bones
Prolactin prl Sustained milk production after birth amplified the effect of lh in males
Thyroid stimulating hormone tsh Controls secreation of homones from thyroid gland
Adrerenocorticotropic hormone acth Controls secreation of hormones from the adrenal cortex
Follicle stimulating hormone fsh Development of egg containing follicles in ovaries stimulates follicular cells to secrete estrogen in males. Stimulates production of sperm cells
Luteinizing hormone lh Promotes secretion f sex hormones releases egg cell in females
Antidiuretic hormone adh Causes kidneys to reduce water excreation in high concentration raises blood pressure
Oxytocin ot Contracts muscles in uterine wall and those associated with milk secreation glands
Thyroid gland produces T4 thyroxine T3 triiodothyronine and calcitonin
Type 1 diabetes juvenile Autoimmune disorder where pancreatic beta cells are destroyed halting insulin production
Type two diabetes Cells lose functional insulin receptors and therefore less able to respond to insulin
Type 3 Gastroentril diabetes pregnancy
Created by: Jenfaith